Replenishing the supply of a molecule that normally activates cannabinoid receptors in the brain could relieve mood and anxiety disorders and enable some people to quit using marijuana, a Vanderbilt University study suggests.
Cannabinoid receptors are normally activated by compounds in the brain called endocannabinoids, the most abundant of which is 2-AG. They also are "turned on" by the active ingredient in marijuana.
Sachin Patel, M.D., Ph.D., and his colleagues developed a genetically modified mouse with impaired ability to produce 2-AG in the brain. The mice exhibited anxiety-like behaviors, and female mice also displayed behaviors suggestive of depression.
When an enzyme that normally breaks down 2-AG was blocked, and the supply of the endocannabinoid was restored to normal levels, these behaviors were reversed, the researchers reported on Nov. 26 in the online edition of the journal Cell Reports.
If further research confirms that some people who are anxious and depressed have low levels of 2-AG, this method of "normalizing 2-AG deficiency could represent a viable ... therapeutic strategy for the treatment of mood and anxiety disorders," they concluded.
However, this approach has not been tested in humans, they cautioned.
Relief of tension and anxiety is the most common reason cited for chronic marijuana use. Thus, restoring depleted levels of 2-AG also "could be a way to help people using marijuana," added Patel, the paper's senior author and professor of Psychiatry and of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics.
Chronic use of marijuana down-regulates cannabinoid receptors, and thus paradoxically increases anxiety. This can lead to a "vicious cycle" of increasing marijuana use that in some cases leads to addiction.
Patel and his colleagues previously have found cannabinoid receptors in the central nucleus of the amygdala of the mouse. The amygdala is a key emotional hub in the brain involved in regulating anxiety and the flight-or-fight response.
They also have found that chemically modified inhibitors of the COX-2 enzyme they developed relieve anxiety behaviors in mice by activating natural "endocannabinoids" without gastrointestinal side effects. Clinical trials of some of these potential drugs could begin in the next several years.
Cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes produce pro-inflammatory prostaglandins and are the target of aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), used to relieve pain and inflammation. It has been known for several years that COX-2 inhibition also activates endocannabinoids.
The current study was led by first authors Brian Shonesy, Ph.D., research fellow in the lab of Roger Colbran, Ph.D., professor of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, and Rebecca Bluett, a graduate student in Patel's lab.
The research was supported in part by National Institutes of Health grants MH065215, NS078291, MH0903412, MH100096, GM015431 and DA031572.
Craig Boerner | Vanderbilt University Medical Center
Electrical 'switch' in brain's capillary network monitors activity and controls blood flow
27.03.2017 | Larner College of Medicine at the University of Vermont
Laser activated gold pyramids could deliver drugs, DNA into cells without harm
24.03.2017 | Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences
Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.
The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.
Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...
Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.
Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...
In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...
Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to simulate these confined natural conditions in artificial vesicles for the first time. As reported in the academic journal Small, the results are offering better insight into the development of nanoreactors and artificial organelles.
Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to...
20.03.2017 | Event News
14.03.2017 | Event News
07.03.2017 | Event News
27.03.2017 | Earth Sciences
27.03.2017 | Life Sciences
27.03.2017 | Life Sciences