By integrating microfluidic chips with fiber optic biosensors, researchers in China are creating ultrasensitive lab-on-a-chip devices to detect glucose levels
Insulin deficiency and hyperglycemia are two well-known culprits behind diabetes, both of which are reflected in blood glucose concentrations. Now, researchers are working to create ultrasensitive lab-on-a-chip devices to quickly measure glucose concentrations with the goal of developing device for early diagnosis and prevent of diabetes
A team of researchers from The Hong Kong Polytechnic University and Zhejiang University in China report integrating fiber optic glucose sensors into a microfluidic chip to create portable, high-performance, low-cost devices for measuring glucose levels. In a paper published this week in the journal Biomedical Optics Express, from The Optical Society (OSA).
'Today, photonic approaches are recognized as the most promising techniques for ultrasensitive sensing," said Dr. A. Ping Zhang, associate professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. "In particular, the synergistic integration of photonic sensing and microfluidics led to the state-of-the-art technology known as optofluidics for biological and chemical analysis."
One reason microfluidic chip technology is so appealing is that it provides a tiny platform to integrate sensors with functional components, such as microfluidic mixers, in order to achieve a lab-on-a-chip analysis system for fast and reliable results.
While electrochemical glucose biosensors can be integrated into microfluidic channels to develop easy-to-handle, low-cost, and portable microfluidic chips, electroactive interference problems often appear in electrochemical sensors. But fiber optic sensors offer a solution to this issue, thanks to their immunity to electromagnetic interference.
By combining a new fiber optic biosensor with a microfluidic chip, Zhang and colleagues created an interference-free optofluidic device for ultrasensitive detection of glucose levels.
Their method involves fabricating an optical fiber long-period grating (LPG) with a period of 390 microns within a small-diameter optical fiber with a cladding diameter of 80 microns, he explained. Such fiber optic devices induce strong co-directional mode coupling through a resonant scattering process. And the resulting central wavelength is very sensitive to changes of the refractive index (RI) of the surrounding media via the evanescent field of optical fiber cladding mode.
"To transform the fiber optic RI sensor into a glucose sensor, the team selected glucose oxidase as a sensing material that would react with glucose in solution. To support the sensing film and magnify RI change, a pH-responsive multilayer film of polyethylenimine (PEI) and polyacrylic acid (PAA) is deposited on the side surface of the LPG sensor before immobilization of the sensing film," Zhang noted.
The PEI/PAA multilayer film surveils the oxidation of glucose with the gluclose oxidase catalyst and responds to the reaction via swelling or contracting," he added.
"Experimental results revealed that the new fiber optic sensor is very sensitive on its own and can detect glucose oxidase concentrations as low as 1 nM (10-9 molarity)," he said. "But, after integration into the microfluidic chip, the sensor's performance was remarkably further improved in terms of detection range and response time."
"Also, notably, no significant loss of biomolecular activity was observed during the experiments, which implies that our layer-by-layer self-assembly technique renders a robust electrostatic absorption of glucose oxidase within the sensing film,"Zhang said.
"The team's work is a significant step toward developing optofluidic devices for the early diagnosis and prevention of diabetes," he said.
In terms of applications, the optofluidic device enables detection of glucose in solution "requiring only a tiny droplet of sweat. This makes it an extremely appealing technology to develop for early diagnosis of diabetes via monitoring glucose content within sweat," Zhang said.
Their ultimate goal is to develop multifunctional "lab-on-a-chip devices" through the integration of photonics, microfluidics, and functional materials onto a small chip. Such a technology will enable a broad range of research and development in biomedical diagnostics, environmental monitoring and even aid drug discovery," he noted.
Paper: Ming-jie Yin, Bobo Huang, Shaorui Gao, A. Ping Zhang, and Xuesong Ye, "Optical fiber LPG biosensor integrated microfluidic chip for ultrasensitive glucose detection," Biomed. Opt. Express 7, 2067-2077 (2016). DOI: 10.1364/BOE.7.002067.
About Biomedical Optics Express
Biomedical Optics Express is OSA's principal outlet for serving the biomedical optics community with rapid, open-access, peer-reviewed papers related to optics, photonics and imaging in the life sciences. The journal scope encompasses theoretical modeling and simulations, technology development, and biomedical studies and clinical applications. It is published by The Optical Society and edited by Christoph Hitzenberger of The Medical University of Vienna. Biomedical Optics Express is an open-access journal and is available at no cost to readers online at: OSA Publishing.
About The Optical Society
Founded in 1916, The Optical Society (OSA) is the leading professional organization for scientists, engineers, students and entrepreneurs who fuel discoveries, shape real-life applications and accelerate achievements in the science of light. Through world-renowned publications, meetings and membership initiatives, OSA provides quality research, inspired interactions and dedicated resources for its extensive global network of optics and photonics experts. For more information, visit osa.org/100.
Rebecca Andersen | EurekAlert!
Inflammation Triggers Unsustainable Immune Response to Chronic Viral Infection
24.10.2016 | Universität Basel
Resolving the mystery of preeclampsia
21.10.2016 | Universitätsklinikum Magdeburg
Ultrafast lasers have introduced new possibilities in engraving ultrafine structures, and scientists are now also investigating how to use them to etch microstructures into thin glass. There are possible applications in analytics (lab on a chip) and especially in electronics and the consumer sector, where great interest has been shown.
This new method was born of a surprising phenomenon: irradiating glass in a particular way with an ultrafast laser has the effect of making the glass up to a...
Terahertz excitation of selected crystal vibrations leads to an effective magnetic field that drives coherent spin motion
Controlling functional properties by light is one of the grand goals in modern condensed matter physics and materials science. A new study now demonstrates how...
Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo led the development of a new extensible wiring technique capable of controlling superconducting quantum bits, representing a significant step towards to the realization of a scalable quantum computer.
"The quantum socket is a wiring method that uses three-dimensional wires based on spring-loaded pins to address individual qubits," said Jeremy Béjanin, a PhD...
In a paper in Scientific Reports, a research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute describes a novel light-activated phenomenon that could become the basis for applications as diverse as microscopic robotic grippers and more efficient solar cells.
A research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) has developed a revolutionary, light-activated semiconductor nanocomposite material that can be used...
By forcefully embedding two silicon atoms in a diamond matrix, Sandia researchers have demonstrated for the first time on a single chip all the components needed to create a quantum bridge to link quantum computers together.
"People have already built small quantum computers," says Sandia researcher Ryan Camacho. "Maybe the first useful one won't be a single giant quantum computer...
14.10.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
12.10.2016 | Event News
25.10.2016 | Earth Sciences
25.10.2016 | Power and Electrical Engineering
25.10.2016 | Process Engineering