Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Electronic cigarette flavorings alter lung function at the cellular level

18.05.2015

Certain flavorings used in electronic cigarette liquid may alter important cellular functions in lung tissue, according to new research presented at the 2015 American Thoracic Society International Conference. These changes in cell viability, cell proliferation, and calcium signaling are flavor-dependent. Coupling these results with chemicals identified in each flavor could prove useful in identifying flavors or chemical constituents that produce adverse effects in users.

"The effects of the various chemical components of e-cigarette vapor on lung tissue are largely unknown," said lead author Temperance Rowell, a graduate student in the Cell Biology and Physiology Department of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. "In our study using human lung epithelial cells, a number of cell viability and toxicity parameters pointed to 5 of 13 flavors tested showing overall adverse effects to cells in a dose-dependent manner."

In the study, cultured human airway epithelial cells were exposed to various doses of the 13 e-cigarette liquid flavors for 30 minutes or 24 hours. During the 30 minute exposure test, the flavors Hot Cinnamon Candies, Banana Pudding (Southern Style), and Menthol Tobacco elicited a dose-dependent calcium response and were toxic to the cells at higher doses.

During the 24 hour exposure test, these same three favors decreased cell proliferation and cell viability in a dose-dependent manner.

The toxic effects of these flavorings were not seen with either nicotine or the e-liquid vehicle, which consisted of propylene glycol and vegetable glycerin.

Additional experiments testing the aerosolized product of e-liquid flavors on cultured primary human bronchial epithelial cells are ongoing. Flavors being tested were selected from the findings in this study.

"The specific chemical components underlying the toxic effects of these e-cigarette flavors on cell viability, proliferation, and calcium signaling in airway epithelia are undergoing further study in our lab," said Ms. Rowell. "Given the increasing popularity of flavored e-cigarettes, a better understanding of their ingredients, the potential health risks of these ingredients, and the causes of these risks is urgently needed."

###

Please note that numbers in this release may differ slightly from those in the abstract. Many of these investigations are ongoing; the release represents the most up-to-date data available at press time.

Abstract 67743

Select E-Cigarette Flavors Alter Calcium Signaling, Cell Viability and Proliferation in Lung Epithelia Type: Scientific Abstract Category: 09.09 - COPD: Pathogenesis (CP) Authors: T.R. Rowell1, S. Lee2, R. Tarran2; 1The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill - Chapel Hill, NC/US, 2University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill - Chapel Hill, NC/US

Abstract Body

Rationale: Flavored e-cigarettes are becoming increasingly popular. However, little is known about their constituent chemicals or their effect on the pulmonary epithelia. We purchased 13 representative flavors of e-cigarette liquid from the Vapor Girl (http://www.thevaporgirl.com/) and tested their effects on airway epithelial calcium signaling, cell viability, and cell proliferation. We know that calcium homeostasis is deranged following tobacco exposure, leading to airway epithelial abnormalities. Since calcium is an important cell signal that regulates secretion, protein trafficking, cell division and death among other functions, we measured changes in cytoplasmic calcium levels following treatments with different flavors.

Methods: Calu3 cells were seeded into 96-well microplates. Cells were exposed to various doses of the 13 e-liquid flavors diluted in cell culture media for 30 minutes or 24 hours. Calcium signaling was measured using Fluo-4, a calcium indicator. Cell viability was assessed using LDH release, propidium iodide uptake, and trypan blue exclusion. Cell proliferation was measured using LDH release. Mass spectrometry was used to determine presence of chemical constituents in each flavor reported.

Results: Flavors such as Hot Cinnamon Candies, Banana Pudding (Southern Style), and Menthol Tobacco evoked a strong calcium response and cytotoxicity in higher doses during the 30 minute exposure. These same flavors also decreased cell proliferation and the ability of cells to respond to a pharmacological agent that releases internal calcium stores in a dose-dependent manner after the 24 hour exposure. Moreover, these effects were not reprised by nicotine or the e-liquid vehicle for chemical constituents (propylene glycol and vegetable glycerin).

Conclusions: Only select flavors of the 13 screened evoked alterations in calcium signaling, which could affect the changes in cell viability and proliferation that were also measured. There could be chemical constituents present in particular flavors that we can identify via mass spectrometry that affect calcium signaling, cell viability and proliferation in airway epithelia. In this way, we aim to determine which chemicals in flavored e-cigarette liquids are associated with toxicity.

Nathaniel Dunford | EurekAlert!

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Organ-on-a-chip mimics heart's biomechanical properties
23.02.2017 | Vanderbilt University

nachricht Researchers identify cause of hereditary skeletal muscle disorder
22.02.2017 | Klinikum der Universität München

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

Im Focus: Three Magnetic States for Each Hole

Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".

Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Stingless bees have their nests protected by soldiers

24.02.2017 | Life Sciences

New risk factors for anxiety disorders

24.02.2017 | Life Sciences

MWC 2017: 5G Capital Berlin

24.02.2017 | Trade Fair News

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>