Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

3-D printing aids in understanding food enjoyment

16.11.2015

Tasting food relies on food volatiles moving from the back of the mouth to the nasal cavity, but researchers have wondered why airflow doesn't carry them in the other direction, into the lungs. Now a team of engineers, using a 3D printed model of the human airway from nostril to trachea, has determined that the shape of the airway preferentially transfers volatiles to the nasal cavity and allows humans to enjoy the smell of good food.


A partially completed 3-D printed airway from nostril to trachea with fine structure of the nasal cavity showing.

Credit: Rui Ni, Penn State

"During quiet breathing, there is no valve that can control the direction of volatile transport," said Rui Ni, assistant professor of mechanical engineering, Penn State. "However, something must be controlling the movement of these particles and keeping them out of the lungs."

In the past, physiologists looked at the nasal passages, but not at the pathway from the back of the mouth to the nose. In this case, the researchers used data from CT scans and the help of two radiologists to build a schematic of the human airway from the nostrils to the trachea, including the fine structure. They then used the schematic to make a 3D model using a 3D printer.

Ni and colleagues then tested airflow into and out of the airway. They reported their results in a recent issue of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Chewed food particles end up in the back of the mouth in a sort of side cavity to the main airflow. The researchers found that when air is inhaled through the nose, the air flow forms an air curtain to prevent volatile particles released from the back of the mouth from escaping into the lungs. However, when air is exhaled, it sweeps into the area with abundant food volatiles moving them into the nasal cavity where they are sensed by olfactory cells.

Movement of the particles is also effected by the speed of breathing.

"Smooth, relatively slow breathing maximizes delivery of the particles to the nose," said Ni. "Food smells and tastes better if you take your time."

This slow, steady breathing optimizes the unsymmetrical transport effect and allows more air to sweep particles out and up. Ni suggests that for a really good meal, taking time to slow down and breathe smoothly will deliver more smell and flavor.

###

Other researchers on this project included Mark H. Michalski, Gordon M. Shepherd and Elliott Brown, School of Medicine; Ngoc Doan and Joseph Zinter, Center for Engineering Innovation and Design; and Nicholas T. Ouelletter, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science; all at Yale University.

The National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation supported this work.

Media Contact

A'ndrea Elyse Messer
aem1@psu.edu
814-865-9481

 @penn_state

http://live.psu.edu 

A'ndrea Elyse Messer | EurekAlert!

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Researchers release the brakes on the immune system
18.10.2017 | Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn

nachricht Norovirus evades immune system by hiding out in rare gut cells
12.10.2017 | University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Neutron star merger directly observed for the first time

University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event

On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...

Im Focus: Breaking: the first light from two neutron stars merging

Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.

Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....

Im Focus: Smart sensors for efficient processes

Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).

When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...

Im Focus: Cold molecules on collision course

Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.

How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...

Im Focus: Shrinking the proton again!

Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.

It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ASEAN Member States discuss the future role of renewable energy

17.10.2017 | Event News

World Health Summit 2017: International experts set the course for the future of Global Health

10.10.2017 | Event News

Climate Engineering Conference 2017 Opens in Berlin

10.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Osaka university researchers make the slipperiest surfaces adhesive

18.10.2017 | Materials Sciences

Space radiation won't stop NASA's human exploration

18.10.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Los Alamos researchers and supercomputers help interpret the latest LIGO findings

18.10.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>