Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:


X-ray experiments reveal two different types of water


Liquid water exists in two different forms – at least at very low temperatures. This is the conclusion drawn from X-ray experiments carried out at DESY and at the Argonne National Laboratory in the US. An international team of researchers headed by the University of Stockholm now reports its findings in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).

The scientists led by Anders Nilsson had been studying so-called amorphous ice. This glass-like form of frozen water has been known for decades. It is quite rare on earth and does not occur in everyday life; however, most water ice in the solar system actually exists in this amorphous form.

When HDA ice changes to LDA ice upon warming, it suddenly grows in volume by about a quarter, as has been observed before. Photos: Katrin Amann-Winkel/Filippo Cavalca, University of Stockholm

Liquid water has two variants: High Density Liquid (HDL) and Low Density Liquid (LDL) which have now been observed at extremely low temperatures, but can not be bottled. Photo: Gesine Born, DESY

Instead of forming a solid crystal – as in an ice cube taken from the freezer – the ice takes on the form of disordered chains of molecules, more akin to the internal structure of glass. Amorphous ice can be produced, for example, by cooling liquid water so rapidly that the molecules do not have enough time to form a crystal lattice.

“Amorphous ice exists in two varieties: one with a high and one with a low density,” explains Felix Lehmkühler, a physicist from DESY who was a member of the research team. These two varieties are referred to as high-density amorphous ice (HDA) and low-density amorphous ice (LDA).

“HDA ice is some 25 percent denser than LDA ice,” Lehmkühler adds. “Scientists have been wondering for some time whether these two varieties of ice might be associated with corresponding varieties of liquid water. However, that is very difficult to measure. Even if water does exist in two states, they will constantly be mixing with and turning into each other, and there is no way of separating the two.”

The scientists have now managed to overcome this obstacle at low temperatures. In the Stockholm laboratory, Katrin Amann-Winkel prepared extremely pure samples of HDA ice. At the Argonne National Laboratory in the US, the scientists noticed that the internal structure of this ice changed between temperatures of minus 150 to minus 140 degrees Celsius – turning into a lower density form.

The scientists then observed the dynamics of this phase change at the P10 beamline of DESY’s X-ray source PETRA III. They found that the transition takes place via a liquid state: first, the HDA ice turns into a liquid form of high density, then this high-density liquid (HDL) turns into a lower density form (low-density liquid, LDL). This demonstrates the existence of the two suspected varieties of liquid water – at least at very low temperatures. The extremely low-temperature water is so viscous that the two liquid phases are only transformed into each other and only mix very slowly, allowing this process to be measured.

“The new remarkable property is that we find that water can exist as two different liquids at low temperatures where ice crystallisation is slow,” says Nilsson, a professor of Chemical Physics at the University of Stockholm. “It is very exciting to be able to use X-rays to determine the relative positions between the molecules at different times,” adds Fivos Perakis of the University of Stockholm, who was one of the two principal authors of the study, along with Amann-Winkel. “We have in particular been able to follow the transformation of the sample at low temperatures between the two phases and demonstrated that there is diffusion as is typical for liquids.”

The discovery of the two varieties of water does not have any particular consequences for our everyday lives. For scientists, though, it is an important step towards understanding this extraordinary liquid. “Water may seem very simple, but it behaves very strangely compared with other liquids,” explains Lehmkühler, a member of the DESY research group for Coherent X-ray Scattering, headed by Gerhard Grübel, who is also a co-author of the study and who works for DESY as a Leading Scientist.

“Water displays so many anomalies – its density, heat capacity and thermal conductivity to name just three of several dozen properties that distinguish water from most other liquids,” notes Lehmkühler. “Many of these properties are the foundation for the existence of life, because without water and its special properties, life as we know it could not exist.” This is just one reason why the study of water is so important and a field in which DESY is increasingly involved. New X-ray sources like the soon to be opened European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (European XFEL), whose principal shareholder DESY is, and PETRA IV, the upgraded next generation of DESY’s synchrotron source PETRA III, will allow scientists to penetrate even further into the uncharted territory of water’s phase diagram.

The scientists are hoping that future experiments will help them to answer questions such as whether the two types of liquid water also exist at room temperature. In principle, there is no reason why they should only occur at low temperatures. “The new results give very strong support to a picture where water at room temperature can’t decide in which of the two forms it should be, high or low density, which results in local fluctuations between the two,” says co-author Lars G.M. Pettersson, professor in Theoretical Chemical Physics at the University of Stockholm. “In a nutshell: Water is not a complicated liquid, but two simple liquids with a complicated relationship.”

The University of Innsbruck, the KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm and the US research centre SLAC were also involved in the research.

Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY is one of the world’s leading particle accelerator centres. Researchers use the large-scale facilities at DESY to explore the microcosm in all its variety – ranging from the interaction of tiny elementary particles to the behaviour of innovative nanomaterials and biomolecules to the fundamental mysteries of the universe. The accelerators and detectors that DESY develops and builds at its locations in Hamburg and Zeuthen are unique tools for science and research. DESY is a member of the Helmholtz Association, Germany’s largest scientific organisation, and receives its funding from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) (90 per cent) and the German federal states of Hamburg and Brandenburg (10 per cent).

Diffusive dynamics during the high-to-low density transition in amorphous ice; Fivos Perakis, Katrin Amann-Winkel, Felix Lehmkühler, Michael Sprung, Daniel Mariedahl, Jonas A. Sellberg, Harshad Pathak, Alexander Späh, Filippo Cavalca, Daniel Schlesinger, Alessandro Ricci, Avni Jain, Bernhard Massani, Flora Aubree, Chris J. Benmore, Thomas Loerting, Gerhard Grübel, Lars G. M. Pettersson and Anders Nilsson
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (early edition), 2017; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1705303114

Weitere Informationen: - press release with images

Dr. Thomas Zoufal | idw - Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Further reports about: DESY Elektronen-Synchrotron LDA PETRA III X-ray X-ray experiments

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Could this protein protect people against coronary artery disease?
17.11.2017 | University of North Carolina Health Care

nachricht Microbial resident enables beetles to feed on a leafy diet
17.11.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für chemische Ökologie

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: A “cosmic snake” reveals the structure of remote galaxies

The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.

Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...

Im Focus: Visual intelligence is not the same as IQ

Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.

That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...

Im Focus: Novel Nano-CT device creates high-resolution 3D-X-rays of tiny velvet worm legs

Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.

During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....

Im Focus: Researchers Develop Data Bus for Quantum Computer

The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.

Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...

Im Focus: Wrinkles give heat a jolt in pillared graphene

Rice University researchers test 3-D carbon nanostructures' thermal transport abilities

Pillared graphene would transfer heat better if the theoretical material had a few asymmetric junctions that caused wrinkles, according to Rice University...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>



Event News

Ecology Across Borders: International conference brings together 1,500 ecologists

15.11.2017 | Event News

Road into laboratory: Users discuss biaxial fatigue-testing for car and truck wheel

15.11.2017 | Event News

#Berlin5GWeek: The right network for Industry 4.0

30.10.2017 | Event News

Latest News

NASA detects solar flare pulses at Sun and Earth

17.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

NIST scientists discover how to switch liver cancer cell growth from 2-D to 3-D structures

17.11.2017 | Health and Medicine

The importance of biodiversity in forests could increase due to climate change

17.11.2017 | Studies and Analyses

More VideoLinks >>>