Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Tree of life study unveils inner workings of a cell

08.09.2015

Scientists create world's largest protein map to reveal which proteins work together in a cell

A multinational team of scientists have sifted through cells of vastly different organisms, from amoebae to worms to mice to humans, to reveal how proteins fit together to build different cells and bodies.


Scientists have uncovered tens of thousands of new protein interactions, accounting for about a quarter of all estimated protein contacts in a cell.

Credit: Jovana Drinkjakovic

This tour de force of protein science, a result of a collaboration between seven research groups from three countries, led by Professor Andrew Emili from the University of Toronto's Donnelly Centre and Professor Edward Marcotte from the University of Texas at Austin, uncovered tens of thousands of new protein interactions, accounting for about a quarter of all estimated protein contacts in a cell.

When even a single one of these interactions is lost it can lead to disease, and the map is already helping scientists spot individual proteins that could be at the root of complex human disorders. The data will be available to researchers across the world through open access databases.

The study comes out in Nature on September 7.

While the sequencing of the human genome more than a decade ago was undoubtedly one of the greatest discoveries in biology, it was only the beginning of our in-depth understanding of how cells work. Genes are just blueprints and it is the genes' products, the proteins, that do much of the work in a cell.

Proteins work in teams by sticking to each other to carry out their jobs. Many proteins come together to form so called molecular machines that play key roles, such a building new proteins or recycling those no longer needed by literally grinding them into reusable parts. But for the vast majority of proteins, and there are tens of thousands of them in human cells, we still don't know what they do.

This is where Emili and Marcotte's map comes in. Using a state-of-the-art method developed by the groups, the researchers were able to fish thousands of protein machineries out of cells and count individual proteins they are made of. They then built a network that, similar to social networks, offers clues into protein function based on which other proteins they hang out with. For example, a new and unstudied protein, whose role we don't yet know, is likely to be involved in fixing damage in a cell if it sticks to cell's known "handymen" proteins.

Today's landmark study gathered information on protein machineries from nine species that represent the tree of life: baker's yeast, amoeba, sea anemones, flies, worms, sea urchins, frogs, mice and humans. The new map expands the number of known protein associations over 10 fold, and gives insights into how they evolved over time.

"For me the highlight of the study is its sheer scale. We have tripled the number of protein interactions for every species. So across all the animals, we can now predict, with high confidence, more than 1 million protein interactions - a fundamentally 'big step' moving the goal posts forward in terms of protein interactions networks," says Emili, who is also Ontario Research Chair in Biomarkers in Disease Management and a professor in the Department of Molecular Genetics.

The researchers discovered that tens of thousands of protein associations remained unchanged since the first ancestral cell appeared, one billion years ago (!), preceding all of animal life on Earth.

"Protein assemblies in humans were often identical to those in other species. This not only reinforces what we already know about our common evolutionary ancestry, it also has practical implications, providing the ability to study the genetic basis for a wide variety of diseases and how they present in different species," says Marcotte.

The map is already proving useful in pinpointing possible causes of human disease. One example is a newly discovered molecular machine, dubbed Commander, which consists of about a dozen individual proteins. Genes that encode some of Commander's components had previously been found to be mutated in people with intellectual disabilities but it was not clear how these proteins worked.

Because Commander is present in all animal cells, graduate student Fan Tu went on to disrupt its components in tadpoles, revealing abnormalities in the way brain cells are positioned during embryo development and providing a possible origin for a complex human condition.

"With tens of thousands of other new protein interactions, our map promises to open many more lines of research into links between proteins and disease, which we are keen to explore in depth over the coming years," concludes Dr. Emili.

Media Contact

Jovana Drinjakovic
jovana.drinjakovic@gmail.com
416-946-8253

 @UofTNews

http://www.utoronto.ca 

Jovana Drinjakovic | EurekAlert!

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht How brains surrender to sleep
23.06.2017 | IMP - Forschungsinstitut für Molekulare Pathologie GmbH

nachricht A new technique isolates neuronal activity during memory consolidation
22.06.2017 | Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Can we see monkeys from space? Emerging technologies to map biodiversity

An international team of scientists has proposed a new multi-disciplinary approach in which an array of new technologies will allow us to map biodiversity and the risks that wildlife is facing at the scale of whole landscapes. The findings are published in Nature Ecology and Evolution. This international research is led by the Kunming Institute of Zoology from China, University of East Anglia, University of Leicester and the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research.

Using a combination of satellite and ground data, the team proposes that it is now possible to map biodiversity with an accuracy that has not been previously...

Im Focus: Climate satellite: Tracking methane with robust laser technology

Heatwaves in the Arctic, longer periods of vegetation in Europe, severe floods in West Africa – starting in 2021, scientists want to explore the emissions of the greenhouse gas methane with the German-French satellite MERLIN. This is made possible by a new robust laser system of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, which achieves unprecedented measurement accuracy.

Methane is primarily the result of the decomposition of organic matter. The gas has a 25 times greater warming potential than carbon dioxide, but is not as...

Im Focus: How protons move through a fuel cell

Hydrogen is regarded as the energy source of the future: It is produced with solar power and can be used to generate heat and electricity in fuel cells. Empa researchers have now succeeded in decoding the movement of hydrogen ions in crystals – a key step towards more efficient energy conversion in the hydrogen industry of tomorrow.

As charge carriers, electrons and ions play the leading role in electrochemical energy storage devices and converters such as batteries and fuel cells. Proton...

Im Focus: A unique data centre for cosmological simulations

Scientists from the Excellence Cluster Universe at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich have establised "Cosmowebportal", a unique data centre for cosmological simulations located at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. The complete results of a series of large hydrodynamical cosmological simulations are available, with data volumes typically exceeding several hundred terabytes. Scientists worldwide can interactively explore these complex simulations via a web interface and directly access the results.

With current telescopes, scientists can observe our Universe’s galaxies and galaxy clusters and their distribution along an invisible cosmic web. From the...

Im Focus: Scientists develop molecular thermometer for contactless measurement using infrared light

Temperature measurements possible even on the smallest scale / Molecular ruby for use in material sciences, biology, and medicine

Chemists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in cooperation with researchers of the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM)...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Plants are networkers

19.06.2017 | Event News

Digital Survival Training for Executives

13.06.2017 | Event News

Global Learning Council Summit 2017

13.06.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Quantum thermometer or optical refrigerator?

23.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

A 100-year-old physics problem has been solved at EPFL

23.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Equipping form with function

23.06.2017 | Information Technology

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>