A Kobe University research group including Associate Professor Maki Hideshi (Center for Environmental Management), PhD candidate Sakata Genki (Graduate School of Engineering, Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, currently employed at Central Glass Co., Ltd.) and Professor Mizuhata Minoru (Graduate School of Engineering) have developed a new analysis method that uses magnetic fields to quickly and accurately measure the concentration of aluminum used to purify tap water.
These findings can potentially be used in developing efficient and environmentally-conscious coagulants for water treatment. The findings were presented on May 29, 2016 at the 76th Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry Symposium.
In order to provide clear, safe tap water it is necessary to remove particles called colloids from raw water. These particles are very small, between nanometer order and micrometer order in diameter. Polychlorinated aluminum is used as a coagulant in the water treatment process to collect and dispose of these particles. However, aluminum ions can be toxic for fish and inhibit plant growth. The Japanese Water Works Law specifies that aluminum concentration in water must be limited to below 0.1ppm (1:10,000,000).
Various hydrolyzed species of aluminum ion can be detected in water. Until now the "ferron method", involving pigments and absorption meters, has been widely used to calculate the concentration of these compounds. However, this method has some disadvantages: the analysis takes several hours and the results often contain errors.
Associate Professor Maki's research group optimized NMR¹ equipment to develop an analysis method called "27 Al qNMR (quantitative NMR) spectroscopy" that accurately measures the abundance of each aluminum compound. Notably, measurements using this analysis method can be carried out in just three minutes, and the concentration of hydrolyzed species can be calculated to within a very small margin of error in all pH ranges.
After the agglomeration mechanism of sludge including the aluminum ion was analyzed, the group discovered that when there is a high concentration of aluminum ions, after roughly 100 minutes a Keggin-type tridecameric cluster (K-Al13 ) is formed, and after a few months polymerization occurs.
As well as making it easier to measure the concentration of aluminum ions in water, this new analysis method has also clarified the structural changes aluminum ions undergo over time. These findings could potentially contribute to the development of high-performance, environmentally-conscious coagulants that can act more efficiently on colloids.
An acronym of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. This method analyses molecular compounds at the atomic level by putting nuclei in a magnetic field and recording their resonance frequency. Most analyses use dipolar nuclei involving carbons and protons, but this method uses the quadrupolar nuclei of aluminum. This is the world's first reported example of fixed-quantity NMR spectroscopy on quadrupolar nuclei.
Eleanor Wyllie | EurekAlert!
Ion treatments for cardiac arrhythmia — Non-invasive alternative to catheter-based surgery
20.01.2017 | GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH
Seeking structure with metagenome sequences
20.01.2017 | DOE/Joint Genome Institute
An important step towards a completely new experimental access to quantum physics has been made at University of Konstanz. The team of scientists headed by...
Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...
Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.
While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...
Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales
Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...
Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.
As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...
19.01.2017 | Event News
10.01.2017 | Event News
09.01.2017 | Event News
20.01.2017 | Awards Funding
20.01.2017 | Materials Sciences
20.01.2017 | Life Sciences