A Kobe University research group including Associate Professor Maki Hideshi (Center for Environmental Management), PhD candidate Sakata Genki (Graduate School of Engineering, Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, currently employed at Central Glass Co., Ltd.) and Professor Mizuhata Minoru (Graduate School of Engineering) have developed a new analysis method that uses magnetic fields to quickly and accurately measure the concentration of aluminum used to purify tap water.
These findings can potentially be used in developing efficient and environmentally-conscious coagulants for water treatment. The findings were presented on May 29, 2016 at the 76th Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry Symposium.
In order to provide clear, safe tap water it is necessary to remove particles called colloids from raw water. These particles are very small, between nanometer order and micrometer order in diameter. Polychlorinated aluminum is used as a coagulant in the water treatment process to collect and dispose of these particles. However, aluminum ions can be toxic for fish and inhibit plant growth. The Japanese Water Works Law specifies that aluminum concentration in water must be limited to below 0.1ppm (1:10,000,000).
Various hydrolyzed species of aluminum ion can be detected in water. Until now the "ferron method", involving pigments and absorption meters, has been widely used to calculate the concentration of these compounds. However, this method has some disadvantages: the analysis takes several hours and the results often contain errors.
Associate Professor Maki's research group optimized NMR¹ equipment to develop an analysis method called "27 Al qNMR (quantitative NMR) spectroscopy" that accurately measures the abundance of each aluminum compound. Notably, measurements using this analysis method can be carried out in just three minutes, and the concentration of hydrolyzed species can be calculated to within a very small margin of error in all pH ranges.
After the agglomeration mechanism of sludge including the aluminum ion was analyzed, the group discovered that when there is a high concentration of aluminum ions, after roughly 100 minutes a Keggin-type tridecameric cluster (K-Al13 ) is formed, and after a few months polymerization occurs.
As well as making it easier to measure the concentration of aluminum ions in water, this new analysis method has also clarified the structural changes aluminum ions undergo over time. These findings could potentially contribute to the development of high-performance, environmentally-conscious coagulants that can act more efficiently on colloids.
An acronym of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. This method analyses molecular compounds at the atomic level by putting nuclei in a magnetic field and recording their resonance frequency. Most analyses use dipolar nuclei involving carbons and protons, but this method uses the quadrupolar nuclei of aluminum. This is the world's first reported example of fixed-quantity NMR spectroscopy on quadrupolar nuclei.
Eleanor Wyllie | EurekAlert!
Transport of molecular motors into cilia
28.03.2017 | Aarhus University
Asian dust providing key nutrients for California's giant sequoias
28.03.2017 | University of California - Riverside
The Institute of Semiconductor Technology and the Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, both members of the Laboratory for Emerging Nanometrology (LENA), at Technische Universität Braunschweig are partners in a new European research project entitled ChipScope, which aims to develop a completely new and extremely small optical microscope capable of observing the interior of living cells in real time. A consortium of 7 partners from 5 countries will tackle this issue with very ambitious objectives during a four-year research program.
To demonstrate the usefulness of this new scientific tool, at the end of the project the developed chip-sized microscope will be used to observe in real-time...
Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.
The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.
Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...
Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.
Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...
In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...
20.03.2017 | Event News
14.03.2017 | Event News
07.03.2017 | Event News
29.03.2017 | Materials Sciences
29.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
29.03.2017 | Earth Sciences