Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:


Tiny microscopes reveal hidden role of nervous system cells


A microscope about the size of a penny is giving scientists a new window into the everyday activity of cells within the spinal cord. The innovative technology revealed that astrocytes--cells in the nervous system that do not conduct electrical signals and were traditionally viewed as merely supportive--unexpectedly react to intense sensation.

The new miniaturized microscope and related imaging methods, described by Salk Institute scientists on April 28, 2016 in Nature Communications, offer unprecedented insight into nervous system function and could lead to novel pain treatments for spinal cord injuries, chronic itch and neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

Salk Institute scientists show the surprising involvement of cells called astrocytes in spinal sensory processing. Here, astrocytes (genetically labeled in green) in a spinal cord (co-stained with glial fibrillary acidic protein, red, to visualize its outline) react to the activity of sensation with their own chemical signals.

Credit: Salk Institute

The spinal cord is crucial for sensing and responding to the world. Sometimes it even works independently from the brain, such as when your hand recoils from a hot stove before the sensation has fully registered. But it is unknown exactly how the cells within the spinal cord encode these and other feelings from the skin or internal organs.

In the new study, senior author Axel Nimmerjahn, an assistant professor in Salk's Waitt Advanced Biophotonics Center, and his team improved upon the miniaturized microscopes they first described back in 2008. The researchers' new version--which features numerous hardware and software improvements--enabled them to visualize changes in cellular activity in awake, roaming mice.

"For a long time, researchers have dreamed of being able to record cellular activity patterns in the spinal cord of an awake animal. On top of that, we can now do this in a freely behaving animal, which is very exciting," says first author Kohei Sekiguchi, a Salk researcher and PhD student at the University of California, San Diego.

Most of the Salk team's previous work focused on deploying microscopes to observe the brains of living animals. The spinal cord, by contrast, presented a bigger challenge for several reasons. For example, unlike the brain, multiple, independently moving vertebrae surround the spinal cord. The spinal cord is also closer to pulsating organs (heart and lungs), which can hinder stable views of the cells within. However, by developing new microscopy and procedural and computational approaches, the team was able to overcome these challenges and capture the action of living cells in real time and during vigorous movements.

In the new work, the group found that distinct stimuli--such as light touch or pressure--activate different subsets of spinal sensory neurons. They also found that certain features, like the intensity or duration of a given stimulus, are reflected in the activity of the neurons.

To the team's surprise, astrocytes, traditionally thought to be passive support cells, also respond to stimuli (albeit differently than the neurons). Though the astrocytes cannot send electrical signals like neurons can, they generated their own chemical signals in a coordinated way during intense stimuli.

Nimmerjahn is excited about this result because his group has a longstanding interest in understanding astrocytes and their roles in nervous system function and disease. These cells are increasingly appreciated as important players in how the nervous system develops and operates and could serve as promising new drug targets, he says.

"Not only can we now study normal sensory processing, but we can also look at disease contexts like spinal cord injury and how treatments actually affect the cells," says Nimmerjahn.

The team is now working to simultaneously record touch or pain-related activity in the brain and spinal cord using additional iterations of the miniaturized microscopes, which allow them to monitor and manipulate multiple cell types at even higher resolutions.


Other researchers on the paper include the Salk Institute's Pavel Shekhtmeyster, Katharina Merten, Alexander Arena, Daniela Cook, Elizabeth Hoffman and Alexander Ngo.

The work was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health, the Rita Allen Foundation, Whitehall Foundation and Brain Research Foundation; funds from the Waitt Foundation, Hearst Foundations and the Richard Allan Barry Family Charitable Foundation; and research fellowships from the Nakajima Foundation, Mary K. Chapman Foundation, Jesse and Caryl Philips Foundation, the Rose Hills Foundation, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) and the Catharina Foundation.

About the Salk Institute for Biological Studies:

Every cure has a starting point. The Salk Institute embodies Jonas Salk's mission to dare to make dreams into reality. Its internationally renowned and award-winning scientists explore the very foundations of life, seeking new understandings in neuroscience, genetics, immunology and more. The Institute is an independent nonprofit organization and architectural landmark: small by choice, intimate by nature and fearless in the face of any challenge. Be it cancer or Alzheimer's, aging or diabetes, Salk is where cures begin. Learn more at:

Media Contact

Salk Communications


Salk Communications | EurekAlert!

Further reports about: Astrocytes cellular activity nervous nervous system sensory spinal cord

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Molecular doorstop could be key to new tuberculosis drugs
20.03.2018 | Rockefeller University

nachricht Modified biomaterials self-assemble on temperature cues
20.03.2018 | Duke University

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Mars' oceans formed early, possibly aided by massive volcanic eruptions

Oceans formed before Tharsis and evolved together, shaping climate history of Mars

A new scenario seeking to explain how Mars' putative oceans came and went over the last 4 billion years implies that the oceans formed several hundred million...

Im Focus: Tiny implants for cells are functional in vivo

For the first time, an interdisciplinary team from the University of Basel has succeeded in integrating artificial organelles into the cells of live zebrafish embryos. This innovative approach using artificial organelles as cellular implants offers new potential in treating a range of diseases, as the authors report in an article published in Nature Communications.

In the cells of higher organisms, organelles such as the nucleus or mitochondria perform a range of complex functions necessary for life. In the networks of...

Im Focus: Locomotion control with photopigments

Researchers from Göttingen University discover additional function of opsins

Animal photoreceptors capture light with photopigments. Researchers from the University of Göttingen have now discovered that these photopigments fulfill an...

Im Focus: Surveying the Arctic: Tracking down carbon particles

Researchers embark on aerial campaign over Northeast Greenland

On 15 March, the AWI research aeroplane Polar 5 will depart for Greenland. Concentrating on the furthest northeast region of the island, an international team...

Im Focus: Unique Insights into the Antarctic Ice Shelf System

Data collected on ocean-ice interactions in the little-researched regions of the far south

The world’s second-largest ice shelf was the destination for a Polarstern expedition that ended in Punta Arenas, Chile on 14th March 2018. Oceanographers from...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>



Industry & Economy
Event News

Virtual reality conference comes to Reutlingen

19.03.2018 | Event News

Ultrafast Wireless and Chip Design at the DATE Conference in Dresden

16.03.2018 | Event News

International Tinnitus Conference of the Tinnitus Research Initiative in Regensburg

13.03.2018 | Event News

Latest News

Physicists made crystal lattice from polaritons

20.03.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

Mars' oceans formed early, possibly aided by massive volcanic eruptions

20.03.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

Thawing permafrost produces more methane than expected

20.03.2018 | Earth Sciences

Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>