Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

The Up- and Downside of Caloric Restriction for Aging and Health

14.03.2016

It’s already well known that a diet may have a life-extending effect. Researchers from Leibniz Institute on Aging – Fritz Lipmann Institute (FLI) in Jena, Germany, now showed that besides improving the functionality of stem cells in mice, a caloric restriction also leads to a fatale weakening of their immune system – counteracting the life-lengthening effect of a diet. The results are published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine on March, 14. 2016.

Only few years ago, researchers succeeded in prolonging the lifespan of worm C. elegans, fruit fly D. melongaster and rats by almost 50% through a simple caloric restriction – which immediately fueled hopes for having found one key to a longer life also for humans.


Caloric restriction in mice weakens the immune system.

[Graphic: K. Wagner / FLI; Source: www.istockphoto.com / www.panthermedia.net]

However, transferring these results to long-lived primates short after was not equally successful and cooled down enthusiasms quite quickly. Now, aging researcher Karl Lenhard Rudolph, Scientific Director at the Leibniz Institute on Aging – Fritz Lipmann Institute (FLI) in Jena, Germany, and his team showed that caloric restriction even has a severe downside.

In feeding experiments, the stem cells of mice, which were set on a diet, were found to age slower – but the murine immune system was almost completely cut down. Outside of optimal, sterile laboratory conditions, this could lead to severe live-shortening infections. The results of the study are published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine’s current issue.

Caloric restriction slows down the aging of blood stem cells

The study focused on the effects of caloric restriction on blood stem cells (so-called hematopoietic stem cells, HSC) that are responsible for building red blood cells or lymphocytes (immune cells). Like for any other adult stem cell, HSC functionality decreases with every single cell division – the stem cells age. This is why they stay in a resting phase (quiescence) most of the time and are only activated when a massive cell reproduction is required (e.g. after acute blood loss).

In their study, the researchers from Jena investigated how a 30% food restriction effects stem cell aging in mice. One main result was that the HSC stayed in a quiescent state even if simulated stress would have required their activation. This effect was found regardless of how long the diet lasted. Thus, during diet, the blood stem cells did not age at all and their functionality to build new blood cells remained increased even one year after diet.

Caloric restriction weakens the immune system

But the long-term diet had a downside, as well: The mice’s immune system almost completely was cut down. Although the diet had no strong effect on the overall cell number of blood cells, the production of lymphocytes – needed for immune defense – was decreased by up to 75%. As a consequence, mice were particularly prone to bacterial infections.

Slowing down aging under laboratory conditions is not yet transferable to humans

“The study provides the first experimental evidence that long-term caloric restriction – as intervention to slow down aging – increases stem cell functionality, but results in immune defects in the context of prolonged bacterial infection, too. Thus, positive effects of a diet are not transferable to humans one to one”, Rudolph sums up the study results. Even if – under laboratory conditions – aging of single cells or tissues may be slowed down through a diet, the immune suppression may have fatal consequences in real life. To benefit from caloric restriction or medicinal mimetika aiming at increasing health in the elderly, possible risks of such interventions to come down with life-threatening infections remain to be elucidated. „In sepsis patients, we see a higher survival rate for those with a higher body weight than for patients who are very lean“, Prof. Dr. Michael Bauer, Director of the Center for Sepsis Control and Care at University Hospital Jena (UKJ), concurs.

Publication
Tang D, Tao S, Chen Z, Koliesnik IO, Gebert N, Calmes PG, Hörr V, Löffler B, Morita Y, Rudolph KL. Long-term dietary restriction improves repopulation but impairs lymphoid differentiation capacity of aging hematopoietic stem cells. Journal of Experimental Medicine 2016, 13 (4). doi: 10.1084/jem.20151100

Contact

Dr. Evelyn Kästner
Leibniz Institute on Aging – Fritz Lipmann Institute (FLI)
Beutenbergstr. 11, D-07745 Jena
Tel.: + 49 3641-656373, E-Mail: presse@leibniz-fli.de

Note
The provided image material can be used only in connection with this press release [Source: www.istockphoto.com  / www.panthermedia.net ].


Background information

The Leibniz Institute on Aging – Fritz Lipmann Institute (FLI) is the first German research organization dedicated to biomedical aging research since 2004. More than 330 members from over 30 nations explore the molecular mechanisms underlying aging processes and age-associated diseases. For more information, please visit http://www.leibniz-fli.de.

The Leibniz Association connects 88 independent research institutions that range in focus from the natural, engineering and environmental sciences via economics, spatial and social sciences to the humanities. Leibniz Institutes address issues of social, economic and ecological relevance. They conduct knowledge-driven and applied basic research, maintain scientific infrastructure and provide research-based services. The Leibniz Association identifies focus areas for knowledge transfer to policy-makers, academia, business and the public. Leibniz Institutes collaborate intensively with universities – in the form of “WissenschaftsCampi” (thematic partnerships between university and non-university research institutes), for example – as well as with industry and other partners at home and abroad. They are subject to an independent evaluation procedure that is unparalleled in its transparency. Due to the institutes’ importance for the country as a whole, they are funded jointly by the Federation and the Länder, employing some 18,100 individuals, including 9,200 researchers. The entire budget of all the institutes is approximately 1.64 billion EUR. See http://www.leibniz-association.eu for more information.

Weitere Informationen:

http://www.leibniz-fli.de - Website Leibniz Institute on Aging - Fritz Lipmann Institute (FLI)

Dr. Kerstin Wagner | idw - Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Fine organic particles in the atmosphere are more often solid glass beads than liquid oil droplets
21.04.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie

nachricht Study overturns seminal research about the developing nervous system
21.04.2017 | University of California - Los Angeles Health Sciences

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Deep inside Galaxy M87

The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.

Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...

Im Focus: A Quantum Low Pass for Photons

Physicists in Garching observe novel quantum effect that limits the number of emitted photons.

The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...

Im Focus: Microprocessors based on a layer of just three atoms

Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.

Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...

Im Focus: Quantum-physical Model System

Computer-assisted methods aid Heidelberg physicists in reproducing experiment with ultracold atoms

Two researchers at Heidelberg University have developed a model system that enables a better understanding of the processes in a quantum-physical experiment...

Im Focus: Glacier bacteria’s contribution to carbon cycling

Glaciers might seem rather inhospitable environments. However, they are home to a diverse and vibrant microbial community. It’s becoming increasingly clear that they play a bigger role in the carbon cycle than previously thought.

A new study, now published in the journal Nature Geoscience, shows how microbial communities in melting glaciers contribute to the Earth’s carbon cycle, a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Expert meeting “Health Business Connect” will connect international medical technology companies

20.04.2017 | Event News

Wenn der Computer das Gehirn austrickst

18.04.2017 | Event News

7th International Conference on Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics in Freiburg on April 3-5, 2017

03.04.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

New quantum liquid crystals may play role in future of computers

21.04.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

A promising target for kidney fibrosis

21.04.2017 | Health and Medicine

Light rays from a supernova bent by the curvature of space-time around a galaxy

21.04.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>