Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

The oceans are full of barriers for small organisms

01.08.2016

Subtle and short-lived differences in ocean salinity or temperature function as physical barriers for phytoplankton, and result in a patchy distribution of the oceans' most important food resource. The new research from the Center for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate at the University of Copenhagen may help explain the large biodiversity in the sea.

Phytoplankton are microscopic algae that live free-floating in the sea, transported around by ocean currents. The composition of phytoplankton communities affect other microscopic organisms, fish and even whales, as they constitute the base of the food web in the sea.


Small differences in salinity and temperature lead to the formation of weak and ephemeral fronts with different phytoplankton communities on each side. Researchers found that several species of the genus Chaetoceros (shown on photo) constituted the majority of the biomass on one side of the front but were virtually absent on the other side.

Credit: Niels Daugbjerg

"The oceans are full of invisible barriers that occur when temperature or salinity changes. Our new research shows that even short-lived barriers of just a couple of days or weeks, are enough to influence phytoplankton communities. This provides us with new insight into how the high biodiversity of phytoplankton is maintained and how the food web might be affected", says lead author and Postdoc Erik Mousing from the Center for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate at University of Copenhagen.

In recent decades, researchers have increasingly understood how small organisms are separated by relatively permanent fronts in the sea caused, for example, by large ocean currents. However, this is the first time researchers demonstrate that short-lived changes in salinity or temperature also lead to changes in the composition of algae communities.

While it is known that physical barriers on land, such as rivers and mountains, can lead to the development of new plant and animal species over time, the oceans have primarily been perceived as a homogeneous environment. Therefore, it has been difficult to explain the large biodiversity of small algae.

"Our results show that the distribution of phytoplankton is much patchier than previously assumed as a result of these commonly occurring weak fronts. Coupled with the short generation time of phytoplankton the local barriers caused by these fronts could help explain why phytoplankton diversity is so large. Thus, at least in terms of the overall mechanisms controlling biodiversity, the terrestrial and marine systems are not fundamentally different", says co-author and Professor Katherine Richardson, from the Center for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate.

In the study, which was published today in the Journal of Ecology, the researchers analyzed 30 samples of phytoplankton from 16 locations in the North Atlantic. They also measured temperature and salinity in different water depths. Based on the samples, the researchers were able to map out a front with different salinities on each side. The species composition of phytoplankton was significantly different on either side of the front.

"Although our results are based on samples in the North Atlantic, weak and short-lived fronts occur in oceans all over the world. Therefore, there is every reason to believe that the influence of these small scale fronts on phytoplankton is a common feature in the world's oceans", concludes Erik Mousing.

The study has been conducted in cooperation with the Danish ClimateLab, NASA and the University of Maine.

Media Contact

Erik Askov Mousing
Eamousing@snm.ku.dk
45-35-33-15-34

http://www.science.ku.dk/english/ 

Erik Askov Mousing |

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Kidney tumor: Genetic trigger discovered
18.06.2018 | Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg

nachricht New type of photosynthesis discovered
18.06.2018 | Imperial College London

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: AchemAsia 2019 will take place in Shanghai

Moving into its fourth decade, AchemAsia is setting out for new horizons: The International Expo and Innovation Forum for Sustainable Chemical Production will take place from 21-23 May 2019 in Shanghai, China. With an updated event profile, the eleventh edition focusses on topics that are especially relevant for the Chinese process industry, putting a strong emphasis on sustainability and innovation.

Founded in 1989 as a spin-off of ACHEMA to cater to the needs of China’s then developing industry, AchemAsia has since grown into a platform where the latest...

Im Focus: First real-time test of Li-Fi utilization for the industrial Internet of Things

The BMBF-funded OWICELLS project was successfully completed with a final presentation at the BMW plant in Munich. The presentation demonstrated a Li-Fi communication with a mobile robot, while the robot carried out usual production processes (welding, moving and testing parts) in a 5x5m² production cell. The robust, optical wireless transmission is based on spatial diversity; in other words, data is sent and received simultaneously by several LEDs and several photodiodes. The system can transmit data at more than 100 Mbit/s and five milliseconds latency.

Modern production technologies in the automobile industry must become more flexible in order to fulfil individual customer requirements.

Im Focus: Sharp images with flexible fibers

An international team of scientists has discovered a new way to transfer image information through multimodal fibers with almost no distortion - even if the fiber is bent. The results of the study, to which scientist from the Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology Jena (Leibniz IPHT) contributed, were published on 6thJune in the highly-cited journal Physical Review Letters.

Endoscopes allow doctors to see into a patient’s body like through a keyhole. Typically, the images are transmitted via a bundle of several hundreds of optical...

Im Focus: Photoexcited graphene puzzle solved

A boost for graphene-based light detectors

Light detection and control lies at the heart of many modern device applications, such as smartphone cameras. Using graphene as a light-sensitive material for...

Im Focus: Water is not the same as water

Water molecules exist in two different forms with almost identical physical properties. For the first time, researchers have succeeded in separating the two forms to show that they can exhibit different chemical reactivities. These results were reported by researchers from the University of Basel and their colleagues in Hamburg in the scientific journal Nature Communications.

From a chemical perspective, water is a molecule in which a single oxygen atom is linked to two hydrogen atoms. It is less well known that water exists in two...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Munich conference on asteroid detection, tracking and defense

13.06.2018 | Event News

2nd International Baltic Earth Conference in Denmark: “The Baltic Sea region in Transition”

08.06.2018 | Event News

ISEKI_Food 2018: Conference with Holistic View of Food Production

05.06.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Novel method for investigating pore geometry in rocks

18.06.2018 | Earth Sciences

Diamond watch components

18.06.2018 | Process Engineering

New type of photosynthesis discovered

18.06.2018 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>