Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

The inside story: How the brain and skull stay together

05.11.2014

University of Miami researchers discover a network of tissue communication that ensures that the brain and spinal cord are matched with the skull and spinal column, during embryonic development

Think about the way our bodies are assembled during early development and ask: How do neighboring cells know that they are supposed to become a nerve or a bone cell and how do these tissues find the correct place and alignment? Researchers at the University of Miami (UM) are answering these crucial questions.

In a new study, UM researchers describe the signaling systems that tissues use to communicate with their surrounding neighbors, at the head-trunk region. Their discovery may have important implications for the treatment of congenital defects like Spina Bifida and Chiari malformations.

"Our work describes a network of tissue communication events that ensure that the brain stays in the skull and the spinal cord in the spinal column," said Isaac Skromne, assistant professor of Biology in the UM College of Arts and Sciences and principal investigator of the study.

The findings are published in the November issue of the journal Development in a study entitled "Retinoic acid regulates size, pattern and alignment of tissues at the head-trunk transition."

The current study reports two major findings. First, it reveals that cells at the head-trunk junction communicate with each other not only to convey information on the type of tissue they will become, but also their location. Second, the study finds that signaling the identity and location of the tissues are separate events.

Previous work focused on understanding how tissues acquire their identity, without taking into consideration neighboring tissues.

"That is like knowing the size of each plot of land in a city block, without knowing the addresses," Skromne said. "Now we know the addresses as well, and we show that each plot can take different addresses, potentially changing their relationship to the neighboring plots."

For the study, the researchers analyzed zebrafish embryos, knowing that the findings about the development of this organism would be applicable to other vertebrates, said Keun Lee, first author of the paper and a medical student at the UM Miller School of Medicine. Lee carried out the study when he was an undergraduate student working in Dr. Skromne's lab.

"We were hoping to understand the earliest mechanism of organizing nerve and bone-forming tissues in zebrafish embryos, because neuroskeletal malformation in newborn babies could severely compromise function," Lee said. "Knowing the mechanism of the malformation in the zebrafish model would help develop interventions to prevent those defects in humans."

The findings show that the coordination of brain and nerve tissue at the head-trunk transition in the zebrafish depends on two activities of a signaling molecule called retinoic acid. One activity specifies the size and the other the axial position of the hindbrain territory. In the future, the researchers would like to gain understanding of the type of information these signals carry.

"Now that we have the big picture of how the tissues are coordinated to form the neuroskeletal system at the head-trunk transition, we would like to know how tissue-specific genes are regulated," Lee said.

The researchers hope that their findings will lead to the development of therapies that target these signaling networks, to prevent abnormalities on the head-trunk junction.

http://www.miami.edu/news

The University of Miami's mission is to educate and nurture students, to create knowledge, and to provide service to our community and beyond. Committed to excellence and proud of our diversity of our University family, we strive to develop future leaders of our nation and the world.

Annette Gallagher | EurekAlert!

Further reports about: Arts and Sciences Zebrafish acid defects embryos mechanism plot skull spinal zebrafish embryos

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht A novel socio-ecological approach helps identifying suitable wolf habitats
17.02.2017 | Universität Zürich

nachricht New, ultra-flexible probes form reliable, scar-free integration with the brain
16.02.2017 | University of Texas at Austin

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

Im Focus: Three Magnetic States for Each Hole

Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".

Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Switched-on DNA

20.02.2017 | Materials Sciences

Second cause of hidden hearing loss identified

20.02.2017 | Health and Medicine

Prospect for more effective treatment of nerve pain

20.02.2017 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>