It turns out that peptide toxins isolated from the venom of some animals -- such as the Peruvian green velvet tarantula -- can be beneficial when used to target neural receptors to reduce the sensation of pain.
When venom from animals such as spiders, snakes or cone snails is injected via a bite or harpoon, the cocktail of toxins delivered to its victim tends to cause serious reactions that, if untreated, can be lethal. But even venom has a therapeutic upside: Individual peptide toxins are being tapped to target receptors in the brain to potentially serve as painkillers.
Millions of people live with chronic and neuropathic pain, in large part because current treatments often provide limited pain relief, have a heavy profile of soporific side effects and can be extremely addictive. So researchers around the globe are chasing down potential new therapeutic agents and working to gain a better understanding of how molecules with painkiller activity function. This will lead to alternative painkillers--and possibly improve the quality of life for people who suffer from chronic pain.
At the Biophysical Society's 60th Annual Meeting, being held in Los Angeles, Calif., Feb. 27-March 2, 2016, a group of researchers from the University of Queensland in Brisbane, Australia, will describe their efforts with ProTx-II, a peptide toxin found within the venom of the Peruvian green velvet tarantula, Thrixopelma pruriens. Its high potency and selectivity to inhibit the pain sensation receptor make it an ideal candidate as a future painkiller.
"Our group is specifically interested in understanding the mode of action of this toxin to gain information that can guide us in the design and optimization of novel pain therapeutics," said Sónia Troeira Henriques, senior research officer at the University of Queensland's Institute for Molecular Bioscience.
How does ProTx-II work? "It binds to the pain receptor located within the membrane of neuronal cells, but the precise peptide-receptor binding site and the importance of the cell membrane in the inhibitory activity of ProTx-II is unknown," explained Henriques.
So the group zeroed in on its structure-activity relationship by "exploring the structure, the membrane-binding properties, and the inhibitory activity of ProTx-II and a series of analogues," she added.
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy enables 3-D characterization of the structure of this peptide, which allows the group to explore whether it's important for its ability to inhibit the pain receptor.
They also use surface plasmon resonance and fluorescence methodologies, as well as molecular simulations, to further characterize the interactions between the peptide and the neuronal cell membrane and to identify the molecular properties of the peptide involved in the interaction and inhibition with the pain receptor.
"Our results show that the cell membrane plays an important role in the ability of ProTx-II to inhibit the pain receptor. In particular, the neuronal cell membranes attract the peptide to the neurons, increase its concentration close to the pain receptors, and lock the peptide in the right orientation to maximize its interaction with the target," said Henriques.
The group's work is the first to describe the importance of the membrane-binding properties of ProTx-II for its potency as an inhibitor of Nav 1.7, an important pain receptor. "Until now, studies characterizing the inhibitory activity of venom toxins have ignored the potential role of the cell membrane in their potency and activity," she noted.
Beyond Nav 1.7, "other voltage-gated ion channels are located at the cell membrane and involved in a range of physiological processes such as muscle and nerve relaxation, regulation of blood pressure, and sensory transduction," Henriques pointed out. "Their 'faulty' activity is, however, associated with several disorders, so other ion channels are actively being pursued as drug targets for the treatment of neuromuscular disease, neurological disorders, and inflammatory and neuropathic pain."
Based on the group's findings, they're now designing new toxins with greater affinity for the cell membrane and fewer side effects.
"Our work creates an opportunity to explore the importance of the cell membrane in the activity of peptide toxins that target other voltage-gated ion channels involved in important disorders," said Henriques.
Presentation #181, "Rational design and synthesis of a novel membrane binding NaV1.8 selective inhibitor with in vivo activity in pain models," is authored by Christina I. Schroeder, Jennifer Deuis, Sonia Troeria Henriques, Zoltan Dekan, Marco Inserra, Mehdi Mobli and Irina Vetter. It will be at 4:00 p.m. PT on Sunday, Feb. 28, 2016 in Room 502B of the Los Angeles Convention Center. ABSTRACT: http://tinyurl.
MORE MEETING INFORMATION
ABOUT THE MEETING
Each year, the Biophysical Society Annual Meeting brings together more than 6,500 researchers working in the multidisciplinary fields representing biophysics. With more than 3,600 poster presentations, over 200 exhibits, and more than 20 symposia, the BPS Annual Meeting is the largest meeting of biophysicists in the world. Despite its size, the meeting retains its small-meeting flavor through its subgroup symposia, platform sessions, social activities and committee programs. The 60th Annual Meeting will be held at the Los Angeles Convention Center.
The Biophysical Society invites professional journalists, freelance science writers and public information officers to attend its Annual Meeting free of charge. For press registration, contact Ellen Weiss <EWeiss@biophysics.org> or the media line at the American Institute of Physics at <email@example.com> or 301-209-3090.
Embargoed press releases describing in detail some of the breakthroughs to be discussed at the meeting are available on Eurekalert, Newswise and Alpha Galileo or by contacting the media line at the American Institute of Physics at firstname.lastname@example.org or 301-209-3090.
Main Meeting Page: http://tinyurl.
Itinerary planner: http://tinyurl.
ABOUT THE SOCIETY
The Biophysical Society, founded in 1958, is a professional, scientific Society established to encourage development and dissemination of knowledge in biophysics. The Society promotes growth in this expanding field through its annual meeting, monthly journal, and committee and outreach activities. Its 9,000 members are located throughout the U.S. and the world, where they teach and conduct research in colleges, universities, laboratories, government agencies, and industry. For more information on the Society, or the 2016 Annual Meeting, visit http://www.
AIP Media Line | EurekAlert!
More genes are active in high-performance maize
19.01.2018 | Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn
How plants see light
19.01.2018 | Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg im Breisgau
On the way to an intelligent laboratory, physicists from Innsbruck and Vienna present an artificial agent that autonomously designs quantum experiments. In initial experiments, the system has independently (re)discovered experimental techniques that are nowadays standard in modern quantum optical laboratories. This shows how machines could play a more creative role in research in the future.
We carry smartphones in our pockets, the streets are dotted with semi-autonomous cars, but in the research laboratory experiments are still being designed by...
What enables electrons to be transferred swiftly, for example during photosynthesis? An interdisciplinary team of researchers has worked out the details of how...
For the first time, scientists have precisely measured the effective electrical charge of a single molecule in solution. This fundamental insight of an SNSF Professor could also pave the way for future medical diagnostics.
Electrical charge is one of the key properties that allows molecules to interact. Life itself depends on this phenomenon: many biological processes involve...
At the JEC World Composite Show in Paris in March 2018, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be focusing on the latest trends and innovations in laser machining of composites. Among other things, researchers at the booth shared with the Aachen Center for Integrative Lightweight Production (AZL) will demonstrate how lasers can be used for joining, structuring, cutting and drilling composite materials.
No other industry has attracted as much public attention to composite materials as the automotive industry, which along with the aerospace industry is a driver...
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) and Tohoku University have developed high-quality GFO epitaxial films and systematically investigated their ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties. They also demonstrated the room-temperature magnetocapacitance effects of these GFO thin films.
Multiferroic materials show magnetically driven ferroelectricity. They are attracting increasing attention because of their fascinating properties such as...
08.01.2018 | Event News
11.12.2017 | Event News
08.12.2017 | Event News
19.01.2018 | Materials Sciences
19.01.2018 | Health and Medicine
19.01.2018 | Physics and Astronomy