Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Study reveals the proteins expressed by human cytomegalovirus

23.11.2012
Ribosome-mapping technique may provide insights into other viral proteomes as well

New findings reveal the surprisingly complex protein-coding capacity of the human cytomegalovirus, or HCMV, and provide the first steps toward understanding how the virus manipulates human cells during infection.

The genome of the HCMV was first sequenced over 20 years ago, but researchers have now investigated the proteome—the complete set of expressed proteins—of this common pathogen as well.

HCMV is an incredibly successful virus, and it infects most humans on the planet. Birth defects and disease, however, are only known to occur in newborn infants and adults with compromised immune systems, respectively. But, the pathogen also has one of the largest viral genomes on record, with a massive 240,000 base pairs of DNA. (For comparison, the genome of the poliovirus only contains about 7,500 base pairs.)

Noam Stern-Ginossar from the University of California in San Francisco, along with colleagues from the United States and Germany, used a combination of techniques, including ribosome profiling and mass spectrometry, to study HCMV's proteome. The method could be used to investigate proteins produced by other viruses as well, they say.

The researchers' findings appear in the 23 November issue of the journal Science, which is published by AAAS, the nonprofit science society.

"The genome of a virus is just a starting point," explained Jonathan Weissman from the University of California, a co-author of the Science report. "Understanding what proteins are encoded by that genome allows us to start thinking about what the virus does and how we can interfere with it… Each of the proteins we've identified has the potential to tell us how this virus is manipulating its host cell."

Stern-Ginossar and the other researchers suspected that existing maps of HCMV's protein-coding potential, based largely on computational methods, were far from complete. So, they began mapping the positions of ribosomes—the cellular organelles in which proteins are synthesized—during an HCMV infection of human fibroblast cells. With the resulting map, Stern-Ginossar and her colleagues discovered templates for hundreds of previously unidentified proteins that were encoded in corresponding DNA segments of the viral genome, known as open reading frames.

Surprisingly, the researchers found that many of these open reading frames encode for exceptionally short protein sequences (fewer than 100 amino acids). And some of the newly identified open reading frames were even hiding inside other open reading frames, they say.

"A key finding of our work is that each of these templates can encode more than one protein," said Annette Michalski from the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry in Martinsried, Germany, another co-author of the Science report. "And these extremely short proteins might be more common than we expect."

The researchers applied mass spectrometry to confirm the presence of many unknown viral proteins that had been predicted by mapping the ribosome positions.

In the future, this coupling of ribosome profiling with mass spectrometry might be used to investigate the proteomes of other complex viruses. Eventually, such information could be used to understand how different viruses hijack their hosts' cells for their own purposes.

The report by Stern-Ginossar et al. was supported by a human frontier science program postdoctoral fellowship, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and the Max-Plank Society.

The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is the world's largest general scientific society, and publisher of the journal, Science as well as Science Translational Medicine and Science Signaling. AAAS was founded in 1848, and includes some 261 affiliated societies and academies of science, serving 10 million individuals. Science has the largest paid circulation of any peer-reviewed general science journal in the world, with an estimated total readership of 1 million. The non-profit AAAS is open to all and fulfills its mission to "advance science and serve society" through initiatives in science policy; international programs; science education; and more. For the latest research news, log onto EurekAlert!, www.eurekalert.org, the premier science-news Web site, a service of AAAS.

Natasha Pinol | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.aaas.org

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht New risk factors for anxiety disorders
24.02.2017 | Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg

nachricht Stingless bees have their nests protected by soldiers
24.02.2017 | Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

Im Focus: Three Magnetic States for Each Hole

Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".

Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Stingless bees have their nests protected by soldiers

24.02.2017 | Life Sciences

New risk factors for anxiety disorders

24.02.2017 | Life Sciences

MWC 2017: 5G Capital Berlin

24.02.2017 | Trade Fair News

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>