Smallpox virus, which killed millions of humans through the ages, ranks among the world's most feared bioterrorism agents. Human monkeypox continues to occur sporadically in remote African villages.
In a new report, virologists from the School of Medicine at The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio and their collaborators at Oklahoma State University demonstrate how poxviruses such as smallpox defeat the body's host immune defenses. The implications extend beyond viral infections to cancer therapy, said senior author Yan Xiang, Ph.D., associate professor in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, UT Health Science Center.
Smallpox virus magnified approximately 370,000 times. Smallpox, which killed millions of humans through the ages, ranks among the world's most feared bioterrorism agents. In a new report, virologists from the School of Medicine at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio and collaborators at Oklahoma State University demonstrate how poxviruses such as smallpox defeat the body's host immune defenses.
Credit: CDC / Dr. Fred Murphy; Sylvia Whitfield
Dr. Xiang and colleagues revealed how a molecule on the poxviruses defeats a host restriction factor called SAMD9 in humans and animals. In addition to protecting against viruses, SAMD9 suppresses tumors, and mutations in the human SAMD9 gene are responsible for a life-threatening cancer called normophosphatemic familiar tumoral calcinosis. SAMD9 is also implicated in myeloid leukemias and lung cancer.
"There is an 'arms race' occurring between pathogens (disease-causing agents) and their hosts," Dr. Xiang said. "To survive in their hosts, many pathogens utilize specific inhibitors of the host restriction factors. SAMD9 is an evolutionally conserved immune barrier, but it has been successfully overcome by diverse poxviruses." First author of the study is Xiangzhi Meng, Ph.D., an assistant professor in microbiology and immunology at the Health Science Center.
The discovery was described in December in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, with missions of teaching, research and healing, is one of the country's leading health sciences universities. Its schools of medicine, nursing, dentistry, health professions and graduate biomedical sciences have more than 32,200 alumni who are advancing their fields throughout the world. With six campuses in San Antonio and Laredo, the university has a FY 16 revenue operating budget of $801.8 million and is the primary driver of its community's $30.6 billion biomedical and health care industry. For more information on the many ways "We make lives better®," visit http://www.
Will Sansom | EurekAlert!
Newly designed molecule binds nitrogen
23.02.2018 | Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg
Atomic Design by Water
23.02.2018 | Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH
A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. This has made it possible to observe the interaction of multiple photons in a single such pulse with electrons in the inner orbital shell of an atom.
In order to observe the ultrafast electron motion in the inner shells of atoms with short light pulses, the pulses must not only be ultrashort, but very...
A group of researchers led by Andrea Cavalleri at the Max Planck Institute for Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) in Hamburg has demonstrated a new method enabling precise measurements of the interatomic forces that hold crystalline solids together. The paper Probing the Interatomic Potential of Solids by Strong-Field Nonlinear Phononics, published online in Nature, explains how a terahertz-frequency laser pulse can drive very large deformations of the crystal.
By measuring the highly unusual atomic trajectories under extreme electromagnetic transients, the MPSD group could reconstruct how rigid the atomic bonds are...
Quantum computers may one day solve algorithmic problems which even the biggest supercomputers today can’t manage. But how do you test a quantum computer to...
For the first time, a team of researchers at the Max-Planck Institute (MPI) for Polymer Research in Mainz, Germany, has succeeded in making an integrated circuit (IC) from just a monolayer of a semiconducting polymer via a bottom-up, self-assembly approach.
In the self-assembly process, the semiconducting polymer arranges itself into an ordered monolayer in a transistor. The transistors are binary switches used...
Breakthrough provides a new concept of the design of molecular motors, sensors and electricity generators at nanoscale
Researchers from the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of the CAS (IOCB Prague), Institute of Physics of the CAS (IP CAS) and Palacký University...
15.02.2018 | Event News
13.02.2018 | Event News
12.02.2018 | Event News
23.02.2018 | Physics and Astronomy
23.02.2018 | Health and Medicine
23.02.2018 | Physics and Astronomy