Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Researchers find link between death of tumor-support cells and cancer metastasis

19.02.2016

NIH-funded scientists find the lifespan of supportive cells in a tumor may control the spread of cancer

Researchers have discovered that eliminating cells thought to aid tumor growth did not slow or halt the growth of cancer tumors. In fact, when the cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), were eliminated after 10 days, the risk of metastasis of the primary tumor to the lungs and bones of mice increased dramatically. Scientists used bioengineered CAFs equipped with genes that caused those cells to self-destruct at defined moments in tumor progression. The study, published in Scientific Reports on Feb. 19, was conducted by researchers funded by the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB) at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). NIBIB is part of the National Institutes of Health.


The images above show tumors that have metastasized to the lungs (image b) and bones (image d) in mice that had CAFs eliminated after 10 days.

Credit: Biju Parekkadan, Massachusetts General Hospital

What causes cancer to grow and metastasize is not well understood by scientists. CAFs are thought to be fibroblast cells native to the body that cancer cells hijacks and use to sustain their growth. However, because fibroblasts are found throughout the human body, it can be difficult to follow and study cancer effects on these cells.

"This work underscores two important things in solving the puzzle that is cancer," said Rosemarie Hunziker, Ph.D., program director for Tissue Engineering at NIBIB. "First, we are dealing with a complex disease with so many dimensions that we are really only just beginning to describe it. Second, this approach shows the power of cell engineering--manipulating a key cell in the cancer environment has led to a significant new understanding of how cancer grows and how it might be controlled in the future."

Biju Parekkadan, Ph.D., assistant professor of surgery and bioengineering at MGH, and his team designed an experiment with the goal of better understanding the cellular environment in which tumors exist (called tumor microenvironment or TME), and the role of CAFs in tumor growth. In an effort to understand whether targeting CAFs could limit the growth of breast cancer tumors implanted in mice, they bioengineered CAFs with a genetic "kill switch." The cells were designed to die when exposed to a compound that was not toxic to the surrounding cells.

Parekkadan and his team chose two different stages of tumor growth in which the CAFs were killed off after the tumor was implanted. When the CAFs were eliminated on the third or fourth day, they found no major difference in tumor growth or risk of metastasis compared with the tumors where the CAFs remained. However, there was an increase in tumor-associated macrophages-- cells that have been associated with metastasis--in this early stage.

When the team waited to eliminate the CAFs until the 10th or 11th day, they discovered that in addition to the increase in macrophages, the cancer was more likely to spread to the lungs and bones of the mice. The unexpected results from this experiment could spur more research into the role of CAFs in cancer growth and metastasis.

"The simplistic thinking about CAFs is that we should probably try to destroy them," said Parekkadan. "There is evidence to support this idea, and until recently, I would have been in that camp as well. But now when looking at the selective removal of CAFs over time using this engineered approach, these results may be a signal that we should more fully investigate the dynamics of the tumor microenvironment and the timing of intervention in cancer treatment."

More research may reveal whether or not there is a scientific basis for targeting CAFs for destruction--and if so, the awareness that timing matters when it comes to the response of the tumor. While neither treatment affected the growth of the initial tumor, it is important to understand that most cancer deaths result from metastases to vital organs rather than from the direct effects of the primary tumor.

###

This work was also funded by a training grant from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, also part of NIH.

NIBIB's mission is to improve health by leading the development and accelerating the application of biomedical technologies. The Institute is committed to integrating the physical and engineering sciences with the life sciences to advance basic research and medical care. NIBIB supports emerging technology research and development within its internal laboratories and through grants, collaborations, and training. More information is available at the NIBIB website: http://www.nibib.nih.gov.

The NIDDK, part of the NIH, conducts and supports basic and clinical research and research training on some of the most common, severe and disabling conditions affecting Americans. The Institute's research interests include: diabetes and other endocrine and metabolic diseases; digestive diseases, nutrition, and obesity; and kidney, urologic and hematologic diseases. For more information, visit http://www.niddk.nih.gov.

The National Institutes of Health, the nation's medical research agency, includes 27 Institutes and Centers and is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIH is the primary federal agency conducting and supporting basic, clinical, and translational medical research, and is investigating the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visit http://www.nih.gov.

Media Contact

Jessica Meade
NIBIBpress@mail.nih.gov
301-496-3500

http://www.nibib.nih.gov 

Jessica Meade | EurekAlert!

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Researchers identify potentially druggable mutant p53 proteins that promote cancer growth
09.12.2016 | Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

nachricht Plant-based substance boosts eyelash growth
09.12.2016 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Angewandte Polymerforschung IAP

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Electron highway inside crystal

Physicists of the University of Würzburg have made an astonishing discovery in a specific type of topological insulators. The effect is due to the structure of the materials used. The researchers have now published their work in the journal Science.

Topological insulators are currently the hot topic in physics according to the newspaper Neue Zürcher Zeitung. Only a few weeks ago, their importance was...

Im Focus: Significantly more productivity in USP lasers

In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.

Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...

Im Focus: Shape matters when light meets atom

Mapping the interaction of a single atom with a single photon may inform design of quantum devices

Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

Researchers identify potentially druggable mutant p53 proteins that promote cancer growth

09.12.2016 | Life Sciences

Scientists produce a new roadmap for guiding development & conservation in the Amazon

09.12.2016 | Ecology, The Environment and Conservation

Satellites, airport visibility readings shed light on troops' exposure to air pollution

09.12.2016 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>