Poly-(1-phospha-isoprene): phosphorus-containing natural rubber analogue
Goodyear’s 1839 discovery of the vulcanization of natural rubber obtained from rubber trees marks the beginning of the modern rubber industry. A variety of synthetic rubber products were subsequently developed. In the journal Angewandte Chemie,scientists have now introduced a new, interesting variant: a phosphorus-containing rubber with a structure that corresponds to that of natural rubber.
The similar properties of double bonds between carbon atoms (C=C) and phosphorus–carbon double bonds (P=C) led to the idea to try general polymerization techniques on the latter. After a number of successful attempts, researchers working with Derek P. Gates at the University of British Columbia (Vancouver, Canada) wanted to apply this concept to molecules that contain both P=C and C=C double bonds: phosphorus analogs of the building block of rubber, isoprene (2-methylbuta-1,3-diene) and its close relative, 1,3-butadiene.
Starting with phosphorus-containing precursors, the team was able to synthesize the first examples of poly(1-phospha-isoprene) and poly(1-phospha-1,3-butadiene). Precise characterization with a variety of spectrometric techniques gave some insight into the molecular structures of the resulting polymers. Like in the polymerization of isoprene and related dienes (compounds with two carbon-carbon double bonds), one of the double bonds in each building block is retained.
The polymerization mainly occurs through the C=C double bonds and only a tiny proportion happens at the P=C double bonds. This means that only a few phosphorus atoms are incorporated into the polymer backbone. The majority of the phosphorus atoms form side chains in which the P=C double bonds are maintained, leaving them available for further reactions or alterations to the polymers.
“Our functional phosphorus-containing materials are rare examples of polymers containing phosphaalkene moieties and offer many prospects for further derivatization and crosslinking,” according to Gates. For example, the researchers were able to bind gold ions to the polymers.
“As a macromolecular ligand for gold ions, the new polymers may be of future interest in catalysis and nanochemistry. Furthermore, the successful polymerization of P=C/C=C hybrid monomers opens the door to incorporate P-functionalities into commercial rubbers such as butyl rubber or styrene-butadiene rubber that traditionally use isoprene or butadiene comonomers. Such new copolymers promise unique architectures, properties, and functionality when compared to their carbon-only analogues.”
Dr. Derek P. Gates is Professor of Chemistry at the University of British Columbia. Over the past 18 years, Gates and his team have been working on the development of methods to create new phosphorus-containing polymers that are of interest for their novel flame retardant, catalytic, and sensor properties. He is the recipient of the CSC–Strem Chemicals Award for Pure or Applied Inorganic Chemistry.
Author: Derek P. Gates, University of British Columbia (Canada), https://www.chem.ubc.ca/derek-gates
Title: Polymerization of 1-Phosphaisoprene: Synthesis and Characterization of a Chemically Functional Phosphorus Version of Natural Rubber
Angewandte Chemie International Edition
Permalink to the original article: https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.201703590 – Please use in your news piece to make sure altmetric.com picks it up and a link to your piece is shown on the journal's website.
Copy free of charge. We would appreciate a transcript of your article or a reference to it.
The original article is available from our online pressroom at http://pressroom.angewandte.org.
Contact: Editorial office: email@example.com
To be removed from this list, please e-mail us.
Angewandte Chemie is a journal of the Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (German Chemical Society, GDCh) and is published by Wiley-VCH. It is one of the prime chemistry journals in the world. Celebrate the society's 150th anniversary with us and eminent speakers, among them four Nobel Laureates.
Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Postfach 101161, 69451 Weinheim, Germany.
firstname.lastname@example.org | GDCh
Don't Give the Slightest Chance to Toxic Elements in Medicinal Products
23.03.2018 | Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB)
North and South Cooperation to Combat Tuberculosis
22.03.2018 | Universität Zürich
Satellites in near-Earth orbit are at risk due to the steady increase in space debris. But their mission in the areas of telecommunications, navigation or weather forecasts is essential for society. Fraunhofer FHR therefore develops radar-based systems which allow the detection, tracking and cataloging of even the smallest particles of debris. Satellite operators who have access to our data are in a better position to plan evasive maneuvers and prevent destructive collisions. From April, 25-29 2018, Fraunhofer FHR and its partners will exhibit the complementary radar systems TIRA and GESTRA as well as the latest radar techniques for space observation across three stands at the ILA Berlin.
The "traffic situation" in space is very tense: the Earth is currently being orbited not only by countless satellites but also by a large volume of space...
An international team of researchers has discovered a new anti-cancer protein. The protein, called LHPP, prevents the uncontrolled proliferation of cancer cells in the liver. The researchers led by Prof. Michael N. Hall from the Biozentrum, University of Basel, report in “Nature” that LHPP can also serve as a biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of liver cancer.
The incidence of liver cancer, also known as hepatocellular carcinoma, is steadily increasing. In the last twenty years, the number of cases has almost doubled...
In just a few weeks from now, the Chinese space station Tiangong-1 will re-enter the Earth's atmosphere where it will to a large extent burn up. It is possible that some debris will reach the Earth's surface. Tiangong-1 is orbiting the Earth uncontrolled at a speed of approx. 29,000 km/h.Currently the prognosis relating to the time of impact currently lies within a window of several days. The scientists at Fraunhofer FHR have already been monitoring Tiangong-1 for a number of weeks with their TIRA system, one of the most powerful space observation radars in the world, with a view to supporting the German Space Situational Awareness Center and the ESA with their re-entry forecasts.
Following the loss of radio contact with Tiangong-1 in 2016 and due to the low orbital height, it is now inevitable that the Chinese space station will...
Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP, provider of research and development services for OLED lighting solutions, announces the founding of the “OLED Licht Forum” and presents latest OLED design and lighting solutions during light+building, from March 18th – 23rd, 2018 in Frankfurt a.M./Germany, at booth no. F91 in Hall 4.0.
They are united in their passion for OLED (organic light emitting diodes) lighting with all of its unique facets and application possibilities. Thus experts in...
A new scenario seeking to explain how Mars' putative oceans came and went over the last 4 billion years implies that the oceans formed several hundred million...
23.03.2018 | Event News
19.03.2018 | Event News
16.03.2018 | Event News
23.03.2018 | Materials Sciences
23.03.2018 | Agricultural and Forestry Science
23.03.2018 | Physics and Astronomy