Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Paleo study shows how elevation may affect evolution

03.06.2015

Paleontologists have documented how dramatic shifts in climate have led to dramatic shifts in evolution.

One such event, the Grande Coupure, was a wipeout of many European mammal species 33.9 million years ago when global temperatures and precipitation declined sharply. What has been puzzling is that during the same transition between the Eocene and Oligocene periods, North American mammals fared much better.


The rise of the Rockies extended from British Columbia to Nevada in three phases between 56 and 23 million years ago. The rising mountains dried out the interior, preparing mammals for a major climate change event 34 million years ago, researchers say. European mammals were not so prepared.

Courtesy of Eronen et. al.

A new study explains why: the rise of the Rocky Mountains, already underway for millions of years, had predisposed populations to adapt to a cold, dry world.

'Regional tectonically driven surface uplift resulted in large-scale reorganization of precipitation patterns, and our data show that the mammalian faunas adapted to these changes,' write the study authors, including Christine Janis, professor of ecology and evolutionary biology at Brown University, in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 'We suggest that the late Eocene mammalian faunas of North America were already 'pre-adapted' to the colder and drier global conditions that followed the EO climatic cooling.'

The data in the study led by Jussi Eronen of the Senckenberg Research Institutes in Germany and the University of Helsinki in Finland, come from the authors' analysis of the fossil record of the two continents, combined with previous oxygen isotope data that reveal precipitation patterns, and tectonic models that show the growth of the Rocky Mountains. Specifically, the study shows that the rise of the range spread south in three phases from Canada starting more than 50 million years ago, down through Idaho, and finally into Nevada by 23 million years ago.

In the meantime, fossil mammal data show, precipitation in the interior regions dropped, and major shifts in mammal populations, such as an almost complete loss of primates, took place. Estimated rainfall based on plant fossils in Wyoming, for example, dropped from about 1,200 millimeters a year 56 million years ago to only 750 millimeters a year about 49 million years ago.

But across the region these correlated shifts occurred over tens of millions of years, leaving a well-adapted mix of mammals behind by the time of the Grand Coupure 34 million years ago.

In Europe, meanwhile, tectonic developments weren't a major factor driving local climate. When the global climate change happened, that continent's mammals were evolutionary sitting ducks. Other studies have already suggested that Europe's mammals were largely overrun and outcompeted by Asian mammals that were already living in colder and drier conditions.

Eronen said the findings should elevate the importance of collaboration across disciplines, for instance by integrating geoscience with paleontology, in the analysis of broad evolutionary patterns.

'Our results highlight the importance of regional tectonic and surface uplift processes on the evolution of mammalian faunas,' they wrote.

###

In addition to Eronen and Janis, the paper's other authors are C. Page Chamberlain of Stanford University and Andreas Mulch of the Senckenberg Institutes and Goethe University in Germany.

David Orenstein | EurekAlert!

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Symbiotic bacteria: from hitchhiker to beetle bodyguard
28.04.2017 | Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz

nachricht Nose2Brain – Better Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis
28.04.2017 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Grenzflächen- und Bioverfahrenstechnik IGB

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Making lightweight construction suitable for series production

More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.

Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...

Im Focus: Wonder material? Novel nanotube structure strengthens thin films for flexible electronics

Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.

"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...

Im Focus: Deep inside Galaxy M87

The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.

Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...

Im Focus: A Quantum Low Pass for Photons

Physicists in Garching observe novel quantum effect that limits the number of emitted photons.

The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...

Im Focus: Microprocessors based on a layer of just three atoms

Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.

Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Fighting drug resistant tuberculosis – InfectoGnostics meets MYCO-NET² partners in Peru

28.04.2017 | Event News

Expert meeting “Health Business Connect” will connect international medical technology companies

20.04.2017 | Event News

Wenn der Computer das Gehirn austrickst

18.04.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Wireless power can drive tiny electronic devices in the GI tract

28.04.2017 | Medical Engineering

Ice cave in Transylvania yields window into region's past

28.04.2017 | Earth Sciences

Nose2Brain – Better Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis

28.04.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>