Assumptions and models used in the last 30 years are false
Yeast is being used by mankind for longer time than any other microorganism. Bread, beer, wine - all of these could not be produced without Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) and other yeast species.
Over the last decades yeast has become indispensable for industrial biotechnology as a reliable cell factory. Valuable products ranging from enzymes to active pharmaceutical ingredients are industrially produced using yeast, mostly by a species called Pichia pastoris that is particularly productive.
Because of its long and varied use, yeast is one of the best studied organisms. Besides its industrial application Pichia pastoris is also used by scientists as a model organism for studying cell structures. Everything seemed familiar - until this year.
Researchers of the Austrian Centre of Industrial Biotechnology (acib) and the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna (BOKU) have elucidated a new pathway that makes the yeast Pichia pastoris unique. "We were able to show that the assumptions and models that have been used in the last 30 years are not right", explains Prof. Diethard Mattanovich (BOKU and head of the research area "Systems Biology & Microbial Cell Engineering" at acib).
The new pathway explains the utilization of methanol as "feed". Yeasts such as Pichia pastoris belong to the rare kind of microorganisms that are able to utilize this simple alcohol as nutrient. Mattanovich: "The cells use that option, for example, when they grow naturally in the sap of trees, where methanol is present."
The researchers around project leader Dr. Brigitte Gasser discovered amazing similarities with plants. These use carbon dioxide (CO2) as a nutrient and recycle the greenhouse gas in cell organelles called chloroplasts. Eventually CO2 is converted to biomass. Pichia works similarly: It converts methanol, which consists of one carbon atom like CO2, in a cell organelle called peroxisome.
The decisive role in both processes is the formation of chemical bonds between carbon atoms and the rearrangement into sugar molecules and other substances, which are necessary for the synthesis of biomass. "So far we did not know where these rearrangements are performed in the cells, and which genes control them", says Brigitte Gasser.
Just as little was known about the genetic encoding of this metabolism. Most cells have one gene available per protein and metabolic step. Pichia is evolutionarily on the safe side. All genes for methanol manipulation are duplicated, as Mattanovich and Gasser have discovered together with 13 scientists who were involved in this research project.
The genes do not only have an additional genetic information so that the appropriate reactions are located to the peroxisome. They are active only when methanol is present as a nutrient source.
For these findings, the researchers have re-evaluated the entire data, which have emerged in the recent years while improving Pichia pastoris biotechnologically at acib and BOKU. "The interpretation of our systems biology data revolutionized the understanding of cell biology", says Brigitte Gasser, delighted about the new knowledge of life processes on earth. The work was recently published in the prestigious journal BMC Biology. The results demonstrate the leading role of Vienna researchers when it comes to the biotech yeast Pichia pastoris.
Systems-level organization of yeast methylotrophic lifestyle, Rußmayer et al. 2015. BMC Biology 13:80, http://www.
The Austrian Centre of Industrial Biotechnology (ACIB) is an international research centre for industrial biotechnology with locations in Vienna, Graz, Innsbruck, Tulln, Hamburg and Bielefeld (D), Pavia (I), Barcelona (E) and Rzeszow (P). acib sees itself as a scientific and industrial network of 130+ partners, including Biomin, Biocrates, Boehringer Ingelheim RCV, Lonza, Sandoz, VTU Technology.
At acib, 200+ employees work on more than 70 research projects with the final goal to replace conventional industrial processes and products by more environmentally friendly and more economical approaches.
acib is owned by the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Graz University of Technology, the Universities of Innsbruck and Graz and the Styrian Joanneum Research. acib is financed by industrial and public contributions. The latter come from the Austrian Research Promotion Agency of the Republic of Austria (FFG), Standortagentur Tirol, Styrian Business Promotion Agency (SFG), the province of Lower Austria and the Vienna Business Agency.
Dr. Brigitte Gasser, acib/BOKU, +43 1 47654 6813, email@example.com
Prof. Diethard Mattanovich, acib/BOKU, +43 1 47654 6569, firstname.lastname@example.org
DI Thomas Stanzer MA, public relations/acib GmbH, +43 316 873 9312, email@example.com
Diethard Mattanovich | EurekAlert!
Atomic-level motion may drive bacteria's ability to evade immune system defenses
24.04.2017 | Indiana University
Two-dimensional melting of hard spheres experimentally unravelled after 60 years
24.04.2017 | University of Oxford
More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.
Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...
Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.
"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...
The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.
Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...
The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...
Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.
Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...
20.04.2017 | Event News
18.04.2017 | Event News
03.04.2017 | Event News
24.04.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
24.04.2017 | Materials Sciences
24.04.2017 | Life Sciences