Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New way out: Researchers show how stem cells exit bloodstream

29.06.2016

Researchers at North Carolina State University have discovered that therapeutic stem cells exit the bloodstream in a different manner than was previously thought. This process, dubbed angiopellosis by the researchers, has implications for improving our understanding of not only intravenous stem cell therapies, but also metastatic cancers.

When white blood cells need to get to the site of an infection, they can exit the bloodstream via a process called diapedesis. In diapedesis, the white blood cell changes its shape in order to squeeze between or through the epithelial cells that form the walls of the blood vessel.


A stem cell exits the bloodstream through angiopellosis.

Credit: Alice MacGregor Harvey, NC State University

Diapedesis is a well-understood process, and researchers believed that other types of cells, like therapeutic stem cells or even metastatic cancer cells, exited blood vessels in a similar way - with the cells pushing or squeezing themselves out.

But a group of researchers led by Ke Cheng, associate professor of molecular biomedical sciences at NC State with a joint appointment in the NC State/UNC-Chapel Hill Department of Biomedical Engineering, found that these stem cells behaved differently.

Therapeutic stem cells share the same ability to exit the bloodstream and target particular tissues that white blood cells do. But the precise way that they did so was not well understood, so Cheng and his team utilized a zebrafish model to study the process.

The genetically modified zebrafish embryos were transparent and had fluorescently marked green blood vessels. Researchers injected the embryos with white blood cells and cardiac stem cells from humans, rats and dogs. These cells had all been marked with a red fluorescent protein.

Through time-lapse three-dimensional light sheet microscopic imaging, Cheng and his team could trace the progress of these cells as they left the blood vessel. The white blood cells exited via diapedesis, as expected. When stem cells exited the blood vessel, however, the endothelial cells lining the vessel actively expelled them. Membranes surrounding the endothelial cells on either side of the stem cell stretched themselves around the stem cell, then met in the middle to push the stem cell out of the vessel.

"When you're talking about diapedesis, the white blood cell is active because it changes its shape in order to exit. The endothelial cells in the blood vessel are passive," Cheng says. "But when we looked at therapeutic stem cells, we found the opposite was true - the stem cells were passive, and the endothelial cells not only changed their shape in order to surround the stem cell, they actually pushed the stem cells out of the blood vessel. We've named this process angiopellosis, and it represents an alternative way for cells to leave blood vessels."

The researchers found two other key differences between angiopellosis and diapedesis: one, that angiopellosis takes hours, rather than minutes, to occur; and two, that angiopellosis allows more than one cell to exit at a time.

"Angiopellosis is really a group ticket for cells to get out of blood vessels," Cheng says. "We observed clusters of cells passing through in this way. Obviously, this leads us to questions about whether other types of cells, like metastatic cancer cells, may be using this more effective way to exit the bloodstream, and what we may need to do to stop them."

###

The research is published in Stem Cells. Tyler Allen, a graduate student in the comparative biomedical sciences program, is the first author of the paper. The research was supported by the National Institutes of Health and the American Heart Association.

-peake-

Note to editors: An abstract of the paper follows

"Angiopellosis as an alternative mechanism of cell extravasation"

DOI: 10.1002/stem.2451

Authors: Tyler Allen, Jhon Cores, Adam Vandergriff, Ke Cheng, NC State Department of Molecular Biomedical Sciences and joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, NC State and UNC-Chapel Hill; David Gracieux, Maliha Talib, Debra Tokarz, M. Taylor Hensley, James B.M. de Andrade, Phuong-Uyen Dinh, Jeffrey Yoder, North Carolina State University: Junnan Tang, First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China

Published: Online in Stem Cells

Abstract:

Stem cells possess the ability to home in and travel to damaged tissue when injected intravenously. For the cells to exert their therapeutic effect, they must cross the blood vessel wall and enter the surrounding tissues. The mechanism of extravasation injected stem cells employ for exit has yet to be characterized. Using intravital microscopy and a transgenic zebrafish line tg(Fli1a:egpf) with GFP-expressing vasculature, we documented the detailed extravasation processes in vivo for injected stem cells in comparison to white blood cells (WBCs). While WBCs left the blood vessels by the standard diapedesis process, injected cardiac and mesenchymal stem cells underwent a distinct method of extravasation that was markedly different from diapedesis. Here, the vascular wall undergoes an extensive remodeling to allow the cell to exit the lumen, while the injected cell remains distinctively passive in activity. We termed this process Angio-pello-sis, which represents an alternative mechanism of cell extravasation to the prevailing theory of diapedesis.

Media Contact

Tracey Peake
tracey_peake@ncsu.edu
919-515-6142

 @NCStateNews

http://www.ncsu.edu 

Tracey Peake | idw - Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Could this protein protect people against coronary artery disease?
17.11.2017 | University of North Carolina Health Care

nachricht Microbial resident enables beetles to feed on a leafy diet
17.11.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für chemische Ökologie

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: A “cosmic snake” reveals the structure of remote galaxies

The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.

Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...

Im Focus: Visual intelligence is not the same as IQ

Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.

That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...

Im Focus: Novel Nano-CT device creates high-resolution 3D-X-rays of tiny velvet worm legs

Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.

During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....

Im Focus: Researchers Develop Data Bus for Quantum Computer

The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.

Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...

Im Focus: Wrinkles give heat a jolt in pillared graphene

Rice University researchers test 3-D carbon nanostructures' thermal transport abilities

Pillared graphene would transfer heat better if the theoretical material had a few asymmetric junctions that caused wrinkles, according to Rice University...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Ecology Across Borders: International conference brings together 1,500 ecologists

15.11.2017 | Event News

Road into laboratory: Users discuss biaxial fatigue-testing for car and truck wheel

15.11.2017 | Event News

#Berlin5GWeek: The right network for Industry 4.0

30.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

NASA detects solar flare pulses at Sun and Earth

17.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

NIST scientists discover how to switch liver cancer cell growth from 2-D to 3-D structures

17.11.2017 | Health and Medicine

The importance of biodiversity in forests could increase due to climate change

17.11.2017 | Studies and Analyses

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>