Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New Model to study HIV latency in brain cells

18.06.2015

Over 35 million people worldwide are currently infected by HIV. Antiviral therapies can keep the virus from multiplying. However, no drug can cure infection so far, because various cell types continue to carry the virus in a latent, i.e. quiescent, state. Scientists of Helmholtz Zentrum München have now established a model for latent HIV infection of brain cells. The researchers used this model to identify various compounds that affect latency of the virus in the brain. This study was published in the journal AIDS.

“Chronic infection is caused by long-lived cells with resting viral genomes that are activated by different factors,” explained Prof. Dr. Ruth Brack-Werner of the Institute of Virology. “These so-called latently infected cells occur in the blood and in the brain, among others.


Picture: Prof. Dr. Ruth Brack-Werner and Dr. Martha Schneider

Source: HMGU

HIV latency in the brain is particularly difficult to investigate,” she added. Her research group is studying HIV persistence in a very important type of brain cells called astrocytes. The human brain contains billions of them. The many functions of astrocytes include protecting the brain from injury and harmful agents and providing essential support for nerve cells. Mature astrocytes can have a very long lifespan and may exist for years.

Recent studies identified HIV genomes in up to 19% of astrocytes in brain tissues from deceased HIV-1 infected individuals. So far, no experimental model has existed to study HIV latency in these cells. “With our model system, we can simulate latent HIV infection in astrocytes,” said Dr. Martha Schneider, first author of the study.

The researchers showed that various substances, including the cytokine TNF-alpha, can reactivate the inactive virus. Conversely, it was also possible to inhibit the reactivation of the virus by treating the cells with certain compounds. “These results identify drug candidates that may prevent activation of latent viruses in astrocytes”, Schneider concluded.

In the future, the scientists plan to use this system to study the effect of these and other compounds that may prevent the activation of HIV-1 in the brain. As study director Brack-Werner explained: “Several viral proteins are toxic to neurons and may cause immune damage in the brain. Since only limited replacement of astrocytes occurs in the brain, loss of these cells may cause serious damage. Thus silencing the virus in brain cells is an important goal.” In addition, the researchers plan to test the effect of approved drugs and thus to improve the clinical care of HIV-1 patients in the future.


Further Information

Original Publication:
Schneider, M. et al. (2015). A new model for post-integration latency in macroglial cells to study HIV-1 reservoirs of the brain, AIDS, DOI:10.1097/QAD.0000000000000691

As German Research Center for Environmental Health, Helmholtz Zentrum München pursues the goal of developing personalized medical approaches for the prevention and therapy of major common diseases such as diabetes mellitus and lung diseases. To achieve this, it investigates the interaction of genetics, environmental factors and lifestyle. The Helmholtz Zentrum München has about 2,300 staff members and is headquartered in Neuherberg in the north of Munich. Helmholtz Zentrum München is a member of the Helmholtz Association, a community of 18 scientific-technical and medical-biological research centers with a total of about 37,000 staff members.

The Institute of Virology (VIRO) investigates viruses that chronically infect humans and can cause life-threatening diseases. The research activities of the institute focus mainly on the HI virus which causes AIDS, on endogenous retroviruses, which are integrated into our germline, and hepatitis B and C viruses, which cause liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Molecular studies identify new diagnostic and therapeutic concepts to prevent and treat these viral diseases or to prevent the formation of virus-induced tumors.

Contact for the media:
Department of Communication, Helmholtz Zentrum München – German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH), Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, 85764 Neuherberg - Phone: +49-(0)89-3187-2238 - Fax: +49 89-3187-3324 - Email: presse@helmholtz-muenchen.de

Scientific contact at Helmholtz Zentrum München:
Prof. Dr. Ruth Brack-Werner, Helmholtz Zentrum München - German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH), Institut für Virologie, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, 85764 Neuherberg – Phone: +49-(0)89-3187-2923 - Email: brack@helmholtz-muenchen.de

Weitere Informationen:

http://www.helmholtz-muenchen.de/en/index.html - Website Helmholtz Zentrum München
http://www.helmholtz-muenchen.de/en/viro/index.html - Website Institute of Virology
http://www.helmholtz-muenchen.de/aktuelles/pressemitteilungen/2015/index.html - Press Releases of the Helmholtz Zentrum München

Kommunikation | Helmholtz Zentrum München - Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Programming cells with computer-like logic
27.07.2017 | Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard

nachricht Identified the component that allows a lethal bacteria to spread resistance to antibiotics
27.07.2017 | Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona)

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Physicists Design Ultrafocused Pulses

Physicists working with researcher Oriol Romero-Isart devised a new simple scheme to theoretically generate arbitrarily short and focused electromagnetic fields. This new tool could be used for precise sensing and in microscopy.

Microwaves, heat radiation, light and X-radiation are examples for electromagnetic waves. Many applications require to focus the electromagnetic fields to...

Im Focus: Carbon Nanotubes Turn Electrical Current into Light-emitting Quasi-particles

Strong light-matter coupling in these semiconducting tubes may hold the key to electrically pumped lasers

Light-matter quasi-particles can be generated electrically in semiconducting carbon nanotubes. Material scientists and physicists from Heidelberg University...

Im Focus: Flexible proximity sensor creates smart surfaces

Fraunhofer IPA has developed a proximity sensor made from silicone and carbon nanotubes (CNT) which detects objects and determines their position. The materials and printing process used mean that the sensor is extremely flexible, economical and can be used for large surfaces. Industry and research partners can use and further develop this innovation straight away.

At first glance, the proximity sensor appears to be nothing special: a thin, elastic layer of silicone onto which black square surfaces are printed, but these...

Im Focus: 3-D scanning with water

3-D shape acquisition using water displacement as the shape sensor for the reconstruction of complex objects

A global team of computer scientists and engineers have developed an innovative technique that more completely reconstructs challenging 3D objects. An ancient...

Im Focus: Manipulating Electron Spins Without Loss of Information

Physicists have developed a new technique that uses electrical voltages to control the electron spin on a chip. The newly-developed method provides protection from spin decay, meaning that the contained information can be maintained and transmitted over comparatively large distances, as has been demonstrated by a team from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute. The results have been published in Physical Review X.

For several years, researchers have been trying to use the spin of an electron to store and transmit information. The spin of each electron is always coupled...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

Closing the Sustainability Circle: Protection of Food with Biobased Materials

21.07.2017 | Event News

»We are bringing Additive Manufacturing to SMEs«

19.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Programming cells with computer-like logic

27.07.2017 | Life Sciences

Identified the component that allows a lethal bacteria to spread resistance to antibiotics

27.07.2017 | Life Sciences

Malaria Already Endemic in the Mediterranean by the Roman Period

27.07.2017 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>