Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New Mechanisms of Gene Inactivation may prevent Aging and Cancer

24.02.2017

Every cell in our body contains the complete DNA library. So-called methyl groups regulate that in body tissues only the genetic information is expressed that is indeed needed in this tissue. Now, for the first time, researchers from the Leibniz Institute on Aging in Jena, Germany, verified that a lack of methyl groups in the gene body leads to an incorrect gene activation and, as a consequence, may lead to the emergence of cancer. The stunning results were published in the renowned Journal Nature on February 22, 2017.

Each cell in the body contains the basic building plan of our entire organism. It is written in the “DNA” and comprises single genes which determine specific individual attributes. Gene expression is strictly regulated in order to build tissue-specific cells with tissue-specific attributes. For example in an intestinal cell, the genetic information is activated that forms the cell’s identity as intestinal cell.


Dr. Francesco Neri and his colleagues discovered how the new mechanism of gene inactivation could protect against aging and cancer.

Graphic: Kerstin Wagner / FLI; Source: Fotolia.com @ Andrea Danti

In this strictly regulated process, methyl groups play an important role. If they are enzymatically bound to a gene’s starting point, known as the promoter, the respective gene is inactivated. In this case, the DNA is “methylated”. During aging as well as during the development of age-induced diseases like cancer, the activation of genetic information is increasingly defective. However, as of yet, the detailed processes of these errors and the role that DNA methylation has in these processes have only poorly been understood.

A lack of methyl groups in the gene body may develop cancer

It was known for some time that DNA methylation at the promoters of a gene fulfills the function of an on/off switch. One of the big open questions in Epigenetics is why DNA within the gene body (where the important genetic information is located) is methylated as well. This question was now addressed by scientist Francesco Neri from the Leibniz Institute on Aging – Fritz Lipmann Institute (FLI) in Jena, Germany, and his colleagues from the Human Genetics Foundation and the Torino University, Italy.

They proved that genes are also aberrantly activated if – beyond promoters – DNA methylation is missing within the gene body. As a consequence, aberrant proteins are produced, which impinge on the cell structure. Thus, the function and identity of a cell are massively disrupted: cells degrade, cancer may emerge. These results, which answer one of the biggest open questions in Epigenetics, were published in the renowned Journal Nature on February 22, 2017.

Gene expression can be regulated chemically: A target for cancer therapy?

“What makes these results so stunning is that we finally are able to explain why DNA methylation is very often missing in cancer cells. Thus, DNA is not protected from miss-activation, leading to the production of more and more aberrant proteins and the dominance of cancer cells”, Dr. Francesco Neri, who is Junior Group Leader at the FLI and one of the study’s leaders, explains.

But in contrast to the accumulation of damages within the DNA, these epigenetic alterations as we see it for DNA methylation, can– in principal – be regulated by chemical compounds. “This new knowledge that a lack of DNA methylation at the gene body may lead to the production of aberrant proteins, might offer a new target for cancer therapy. If we succeed to find a way to traffic methyl groups to non-methylated DNA sequences of cancer cells, we could possibly stop proliferation of these cells”, Dr. Neri hopes. But there is still a long way to go.

Publication

Neri F, Rapelli S, Krepelova A, Incarnato D, Parlato C, Basile G, Maldotti M, Anselmi F, Oliviero O. Intragenic DNA methylation prevents spurious transcription initiation. Nature 2017, doi:10.1038/nature21373.

Contact

Dr. Evelyn Kästner
Leibniz Institute on Aging – Fritz Lipmann Institute (FLI), Beutenbergstr. 11, D-07745 Jena
Tel.: 03641-656373, Fax: 03641-656351, E-Mail: presse@leibniz-fli.de

Background information

The Leibniz Institute on Aging – Fritz Lipmann Institute (FLI) is the first German research organization dedicated to biomedical aging research since 2004. More than 330 members from over 30 nations explore the molecular mechanisms underlying aging processes and age-associated diseases. For more information, please visit http://www.leibniz-fli.de.

The Leibniz Association connects 91 independent research institutions that range in focus from the natural, engineering and environmental sciences via economics, spatial and social sciences to the humanities. Leibniz Institutes address issues of social, economic and ecological relevance. They conduct knowledge-driven and applied basic research, maintain scientific infrastructure and provide research-based services. The Leibniz Association identifies focus areas for knowledge transfer to policy-makers, academia, business and the public. Leibniz Institutes collaborate intensively with universities – in the form of “WissenschaftsCampi” (thematic partnerships between university and non-university research institutes), for example – as well as with industry and other partners at home and abroad. They are subject to an independent evaluation procedure that is unparalleled in its transparency. Due to the institutes’ importance for the country as a whole, they are funded jointly by the Federation and the Länder, employing some 18,600 individuals, including 9,500 researchers. The entire budget of all the institutes is approximately 1.7 billion EUR. See http://www.leibniz-association.eu for more information.

Weitere Informationen:

http://www.leibniz-fli.de - Website Leibniz Institute on Aging - Fritz Lipmann Institute (FLI) Jena

Dr. Kerstin Wagner | idw - Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht At last, butterflies get a bigger, better evolutionary tree
16.02.2018 | Florida Museum of Natural History

nachricht New treatment strategies for chronic kidney disease from the animal kingdom
16.02.2018 | Veterinärmedizinische Universität Wien

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Demonstration of a single molecule piezoelectric effect

Breakthrough provides a new concept of the design of molecular motors, sensors and electricity generators at nanoscale

Researchers from the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of the CAS (IOCB Prague), Institute of Physics of the CAS (IP CAS) and Palacký University...

Im Focus: Hybrid optics bring color imaging using ultrathin metalenses into focus

For photographers and scientists, lenses are lifesavers. They reflect and refract light, making possible the imaging systems that drive discovery through the microscope and preserve history through cameras.

But today's glass-based lenses are bulky and resist miniaturization. Next-generation technologies, such as ultrathin cameras or tiny microscopes, require...

Im Focus: Stem cell divisions in the adult brain seen for the first time

Scientists from the University of Zurich have succeeded for the first time in tracking individual stem cells and their neuronal progeny over months within the intact adult brain. This study sheds light on how new neurons are produced throughout life.

The generation of new nerve cells was once thought to taper off at the end of embryonic development. However, recent research has shown that the adult brain...

Im Focus: Interference as a new method for cooling quantum devices

Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. Study published in Physical Review Letters

Quantum computer parts are sensitive and need to be cooled to very low temperatures. Their tiny size makes them particularly susceptible to a temperature...

Im Focus: Autonomous 3D scanner supports individual manufacturing processes

Let’s say the armrest is broken in your vintage car. As things stand, you would need a lot of luck and persistence to find the right spare part. But in the world of Industrie 4.0 and production with batch sizes of one, you can simply scan the armrest and print it out. This is made possible by the first ever 3D scanner capable of working autonomously and in real time. The autonomous scanning system will be on display at the Hannover Messe Preview on February 6 and at the Hannover Messe proper from April 23 to 27, 2018 (Hall 6, Booth A30).

Part of the charm of vintage cars is that they stopped making them long ago, so it is special when you do see one out on the roads. If something breaks or...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

2nd International Conference on High Temperature Shape Memory Alloys (HTSMAs)

15.02.2018 | Event News

Aachen DC Grid Summit 2018

13.02.2018 | Event News

How Global Climate Policy Can Learn from the Energy Transition

12.02.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Fingerprints of quantum entanglement

16.02.2018 | Information Technology

'Living bandages': NUST MISIS scientists develop biocompatible anti-burn nanofibers

16.02.2018 | Health and Medicine

Hubble sees Neptune's mysterious shrinking storm

16.02.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>