Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New evidence that diversity has a positive effect on biomass production

14.01.2016

Communities rich in species are substantially healthier and more productive than those depleted of species. An international group of scientists has solved this long-standing ecological riddle using new scientific techniques for analysing complex data of grassland ecosystems worldwide. 

The study with participation of the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ), the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) and the Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg is published today in the current issue of “Nature". It is the most comprehensive study up to now, which shows this effect in natural, un-manipulated ecosystems.


The Doane audubon Spring Creek Prairie site in Nebraska is a typical grassland which covered during former times great areas of the Midwest of the United States.

Photo: Ramesh Laungani, Doane College


Prof. Sally Power from the University of Western Sydney during her research at the Yarramundi site, a grassland near Sydney, Australia.

Photo: Raul Ochoa Hueso, University of Western Sydney

The biodiversity and productivity of ecosystems are important to human well-being and, at the same time, are highly impacted by human activities. The relationship between biodiversity and productivity remains a fiercely debated topic due partly to numerous, often conflicting underlying theories.

Biodiversity has been hypothesized to be of critical importance for the stability of natural ecosystems and their abilities to provide positive benefits such as oxygen production, soil genesis, and water detoxification to plant and animal communities, as well as to human society.

Many of the efforts of conservation agencies around the world are driven by the assumption that this hypothesis is true. While theoretical studies have supported this claim, scientists have struggled for the last half-century to clearly isolate such an effect in the real world.

To determine this the scientists used data collected for this research by a global consortium, the Nutrient Network, from over a thousand grassland plots spanning five continents. The network is coordinated by the University of Minnesota and examines natural meadows and pastures ecosystems at more than 70 locations worldwide research.

In Germany plots near Papenburg (Lower Saxony), Jena (Thuringia) and Bad Lauchstädt (Saxony-Anhalt) are part of the network. For the study, the team evaluated data from 1126 plots on 39 grasslands. Using recent advances in analytical methods, the group was able to isolate the biodiversity effect from the effects of other processes, including processes that can reduce diversity. “This study shows that you cannot have sustainable, productive ecosystems without maintaining biodiversity in the landscape,” says Professor James Grace of the US Geological Survey, who led the study.

A key finding of this paper is the positive effect that greater plant species diversity had on biomass production; this confirms extensive experimental results, but showing this effect in natural, un-manipulated systems has been a challenge until now.

“Impressively, the multivariate structural equation model explained more than 60% of the variation is plant species richness in these natural ecosystems. Furthermore, the underlying environmental drivers of biodiversity and richness differed, which has important implications for understanding diversity and productivity patterns at a global scale”, says Professor Stanley Harpole of UFZ/iDiv/MLU. He is one of the founders of the Nutrient Network.

The researchers found also strong and independent influences of macroclimate and soils on richness and productivity. If climate change leads to reduced species or genetic diversity, which is a real possibility, that then could lead to a reduced capacity for ecosystems to respond to additional stresses.

The new published results provide a rigorous framework towards experimentally testing the causal mechanisms that allow species to coexist and for ecosystems to provide the services that we depend on. A take-home message is that only by using theory-based multivariate causal modelling approaches, can we move towards predicting the multiple and interacting effects of human-driven global change.

Publications:
James B. Grace, T. Michael Anderson, Eric W. Seabloom, Elizabeth T. Borer, Peter B. Adler, W. Stanley Harpole, Yann Hautier, Helmut Hillebrand, Eric M. Lind, Meelis Pärtel, Jonathan D. Bakker, Yvonne M. Buckley, Michael J. Crawley, Ellen I. Damschen, Kendi F. Davies, Philip A. Fay, Jennifer Firn, Daniel S. Gruner, Andy Hector, Johannes M. H. Knops, Andrew S. MacDougall, Brett A. Melbourne, John W. Morgan, John L. Orrock, Suzanne M. Prober & Melinda D. Smith (2016): Integrative modelling reveals mechanisms linking productivity and plant species richness. Nature (14 Jan 2016). doi:10.1038/nature16524
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature16524
The study was founded by the US Geological Survey, the National Science Foundation (NSF) (Research Coordination Network (NSF-DEB-1042132) & Long Term Ecological Research (NSF-DEB-1234162 to Cedar Creek LTER) programs) as well as the UMN Institute on the Environment (DG-0001-13).

The current issue of Nature published also a comment (N&V article):
Kevin Gross (2016): Biodiversity and productivity entwined. Nature (14 Jan 2016). doi:10.1038/nature16867
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature16867

Links:
Nutrient Network (NutNet)
http://www.nutnet.umn.edu/
http://environment.umn.edu/biodiversity/nutnet-new-model-for-global-research/

Further Informationen:
Prof. Stanley W. Harpole
Physiological Diversity / Department head at the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ), Head of Research Group at the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) and Professor at the Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg
Tel.: +49-(0)341-97-33171, -33152
https://www.idiv.de/en/the-centre/employees/details/eshow/harpole-stan-w.html
http://www.ufz.de/index.php?en=33124
and
Prof. James Grace
US Geological Survey, Lafayette, Louisiana, United States
Tel: +1 337 266 8632
https://profile.usgs.gov/gracej

or
Vic Hines, US Geological Survey, Public Affairs Contacts for Press Inquiries
Tel. +1 813-855-3125 http://www.usgs.gov/newsroom/contacts.asp
and
Tilo Arnhold/ Stefan Bernhardt, public relations at iDiv
Tel.: +49-(0)341-9733-197, -109
https://www.idiv.de/en/press/people.html
and
Susanne Hufe, public relations at UFZ
Tel.: +49-(0)341-235-1630
https://www.ufz.de/index.php?en=640
and
Manuela Bank-Zillmann, public relations at Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg
Tel.: +49-(0)345-55-21004, - 21438
http://www.pr.uni-halle.de/mitarbeiter/

About the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv)

iDiv is a central facility of the University of Leipzig within the meaning of Section 92 (1) of the Act on Academic Freedom in Higher Education in Saxony (Sächsisches Hochschulfreiheitsgesetz, SächsHSFG). It is run together with the Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg and the Friedrich Schiller University Jena, as well as in cooperation with the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ.

The following non-university research institutions are involved as cooperation partners: the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, the Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry (MPI BGC), the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology (MPI CE), the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology (MPI EVA), the Leibniz Institute DSMZ–German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures, the Leibniz Institute of Plant Biochemistry (IPB), the Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK) and the Leibniz Institute Senckenberg Museum of Natural History Görlitz (SMNG). http://www.idiv.de

Weitere Informationen:

https://www.idiv.de/en/press/press-releases.html

Tilo Arnhold | idw - Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Further reports about: Environmental Research Geological Survey Helmholtz UFZ biomass diversity ecosystems

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht How brains surrender to sleep
23.06.2017 | IMP - Forschungsinstitut für Molekulare Pathologie GmbH

nachricht A new technique isolates neuronal activity during memory consolidation
22.06.2017 | Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Can we see monkeys from space? Emerging technologies to map biodiversity

An international team of scientists has proposed a new multi-disciplinary approach in which an array of new technologies will allow us to map biodiversity and the risks that wildlife is facing at the scale of whole landscapes. The findings are published in Nature Ecology and Evolution. This international research is led by the Kunming Institute of Zoology from China, University of East Anglia, University of Leicester and the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research.

Using a combination of satellite and ground data, the team proposes that it is now possible to map biodiversity with an accuracy that has not been previously...

Im Focus: Climate satellite: Tracking methane with robust laser technology

Heatwaves in the Arctic, longer periods of vegetation in Europe, severe floods in West Africa – starting in 2021, scientists want to explore the emissions of the greenhouse gas methane with the German-French satellite MERLIN. This is made possible by a new robust laser system of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, which achieves unprecedented measurement accuracy.

Methane is primarily the result of the decomposition of organic matter. The gas has a 25 times greater warming potential than carbon dioxide, but is not as...

Im Focus: How protons move through a fuel cell

Hydrogen is regarded as the energy source of the future: It is produced with solar power and can be used to generate heat and electricity in fuel cells. Empa researchers have now succeeded in decoding the movement of hydrogen ions in crystals – a key step towards more efficient energy conversion in the hydrogen industry of tomorrow.

As charge carriers, electrons and ions play the leading role in electrochemical energy storage devices and converters such as batteries and fuel cells. Proton...

Im Focus: A unique data centre for cosmological simulations

Scientists from the Excellence Cluster Universe at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich have establised "Cosmowebportal", a unique data centre for cosmological simulations located at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. The complete results of a series of large hydrodynamical cosmological simulations are available, with data volumes typically exceeding several hundred terabytes. Scientists worldwide can interactively explore these complex simulations via a web interface and directly access the results.

With current telescopes, scientists can observe our Universe’s galaxies and galaxy clusters and their distribution along an invisible cosmic web. From the...

Im Focus: Scientists develop molecular thermometer for contactless measurement using infrared light

Temperature measurements possible even on the smallest scale / Molecular ruby for use in material sciences, biology, and medicine

Chemists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in cooperation with researchers of the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM)...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Plants are networkers

19.06.2017 | Event News

Digital Survival Training for Executives

13.06.2017 | Event News

Global Learning Council Summit 2017

13.06.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Quantum thermometer or optical refrigerator?

23.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

A 100-year-old physics problem has been solved at EPFL

23.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Equipping form with function

23.06.2017 | Information Technology

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>