Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Neils help removing epigenetic marks

12.01.2016

Researchers at the Institute of Molecular Biology have identified two proteins important for the demethylation of DNA

Scientists at the Institute of Molecular Biology (IMB) in Mainz have identified a missing piece of the puzzle in understanding how epigenetic marks are removed from DNA.

The research on DNA demethylation sheds new light on a fundamental process that is important in development and diseases such as cancer.

Epigenetics is defined by heritable changes in gene expression that do not derive from changes in the DNA sequence itself. Epigenetic processes play a central role in a broad spectrum of diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disorders and cancer.

One of the most prominent epigenetic processes is DNA methylation, where one of the four bases of animal DNA is marked by a methyl group. DNA methylation typically reduces the activity of surrounding genes.

A lot is known about how methyl marks are put onto the DNA, but how they are removed – a process called DNA demethylation – and, thus, how genes are reactivated is still not well understood. In their recent study, published in Nature Structural and Molecular Biology, IMB scientists have identified two proteins, Neil1 and Neil2 that are important for the demethylation of DNA.

"These proteins are a missing link in the chain of events that explain how DNA can be efficiently demethylated," said Lars Schomacher, first author on the paper.

Intriguingly, DNA demethylation has been shown to involve proteins of the DNA repair machinery. Thus epigenetic gene regulation and genome maintenance are linked. Schomacher and his colleagues identified in Neil1 and Neil2 two more repair factors that not only protect the DNA’s integrity but are also involved in DNA demethylation.

The researchers showed that the role of Neils is to boost the activity of another protein, Tdg, which is known to be of central importance for DNA demethylation.

Both the Neils and Tdg are essential proteins for survival and development. Schomacher et al. carried out experiments where they removed either one of these proteins in very early frog embryos. They found that the embryos had severe problems developing and died before reaching adulthood.

Failure in setting and resetting methyl marks on DNA is involved in developmental abnormalities and cancer, where cells forget what type they are and start to divide uncontrollably. Understanding which proteins are responsible for DNA demethylation will help us to understand more about such disease processes, and may provide new approaches to develop treatments for them.

Further details
Schomacher L*, Han D*, Musheev MU*, Arab K, Kienhöfer S, von Seggern A and Niehrs C (2016). Neil DNA glycosylases promote substrate turnover by Tdg during DNA demethylation. Nature Struct Mol Biol, DOI: 10.1038/nsmb.3151 [Epub ahead of print]. (* indicates equal contribution)

Further information about research in the Niehrs group can be found at http://www.imb.de/niehrs.


About the Institute of Molecular Biology gGmbH

The Institute of Molecular Biology gGmbH (IMB) is a center of excellence in the life sciences that was established in 2011 on the campus of Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU). Research at IMB concentrates on three cutting-edge areas: epigenetics, developmental biology, and genome stability. The institute is a prime example of a successful collaboration between public authorities and a private foundation. The Boehringer Ingelheim Foundation has dedicated EUR 100 million for a period of ten years to cover the operating costs for research at IMB, while the state of Rhineland-Palatinate provided approximately EUR 50 million for the construction of a state-of-the-art building.
For more information about IMB, please visit http://www.imb.de.

About the Boehringer Ingelheim Foundation

The Boehringer Ingelheim Foundation is an independent, non-profit organization committed to the promotion of the medical, biological, chemical, and pharmaceutical sciences. It was established in 1977 by Hubertus Liebrecht (1931-1991), a member of the shareholder family of the company Boehringer Ingelheim. With the PLUS 3 Perspectives Program and the Exploration Grants, the foundation supports independent group leaders. It also endows the internationally renowned Heinrich Wieland Prize as well as awards for up-and-coming scientists. In addition, the foundation pledged to donate EUR 100 million to finance the scientific running of the IMB at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz for ten years. In 2013, the Boehringer Ingelheim Foundation donated a further EUR 50 million to Mainz University.
For more information about the Boehringer Ingelheim Foundation, please visit http://www.boehringer-ingelheim-stiftung.de.

Weitere Informationen:

http://www.uni-mainz.de/presse/20060_ENG_HTML.php - press release ;
http://www.nature.com/nsmb/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nsmb.3151.html - article ;
https://www.imb-mainz.de - Institute of Molecular Biology (IMB)

Petra Giegerich | idw - Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Researchers identify potentially druggable mutant p53 proteins that promote cancer growth
09.12.2016 | Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

nachricht Plant-based substance boosts eyelash growth
09.12.2016 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Angewandte Polymerforschung IAP

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Electron highway inside crystal

Physicists of the University of Würzburg have made an astonishing discovery in a specific type of topological insulators. The effect is due to the structure of the materials used. The researchers have now published their work in the journal Science.

Topological insulators are currently the hot topic in physics according to the newspaper Neue Zürcher Zeitung. Only a few weeks ago, their importance was...

Im Focus: Significantly more productivity in USP lasers

In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.

Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...

Im Focus: Shape matters when light meets atom

Mapping the interaction of a single atom with a single photon may inform design of quantum devices

Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

Researchers identify potentially druggable mutant p53 proteins that promote cancer growth

09.12.2016 | Life Sciences

Scientists produce a new roadmap for guiding development & conservation in the Amazon

09.12.2016 | Ecology, The Environment and Conservation

Satellites, airport visibility readings shed light on troops' exposure to air pollution

09.12.2016 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>