First global study of microbial communities at gas seeps in the deep sea shows the distribution and diversity of methane-consuming microorganisms. The specific energy source selects for unique microorganisms, which turn these ecosystems into hotspots of diversity in the deep sea.
Methane seeps are places in the ocean, where methane from deep sediment layers escapes the seabed. Specific microorganisms use the potential greenhouse gas as an energy source and thus form the basis for complex ecosystems.
Methanotrophic microorganisms of methane seep ecosystems.
Micrographs of aerobic methanotrophic bacteria (white), anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME – red) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB – green) visualized by fluorescence in situ hybridization. ANME and SRB perform the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). AOM is a globally relevant process removing 60 million tons, the mass of ten pyramids of Giza, of the greenhouse gas methane from seafloor sediments each year. Courtesy of Katrin Knittel/Emil Ruff, MPI Bremen.
Now an international team of researchers led by the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology has investigated the microbial communities of selected methane seeps from all oceans, and compared those to communities of other marine ecosystems. In the current issue of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA), the researchers report that methane seeps contain many endemic microorganisms and therefore are hotspots of biodiversity in the deep sea.
In general, the seep communities are very different from those of other ecosystems. Only a few species of methanotrophs occur at all seeps worldwide, but these microorganisms seem to greatly influence the methane budget of the ocean.
Seafloor ecosystems have unique inhabitants
Each ecosystem in the deep sea is inhabited by certain microorganisms that can be assigned to the three domains of the tree of life: eukaryotes, archaea and bacteria. Eukaryotes have a nucleus and include all plants, fungi, animals and man. Archaea and bacteria are single cells without a nucleus.
The researchers studied the composition and relative abundance of archaea and bacteria at 77 locations of different marine ecosystems, including coastal sediments, deep-sea sediments, black smokers and methane seeps. They extracted the DNA of these organisms from the seabed samples and analyzed it using modern DNA sequencing techniques and mathematical algorithms.
Emil Ruff, scientist at the Max Planck Institute, summarizes: "Almost all of the major groups of archaea and bacteria were present at all examined sites. With increasing resolution, however, the differences between the ecosystems became clearer. At the level of individual species, which are the smallest branches of the tree of life, we found communities that are characteristic for each ecosystem and have a very specific task."
These characteristic communities were defined as the methane seep microbiome. The term microbiome is used to describe all microorganisms of a particular ecosystem and their genetic diversity. Such an ecosystem may be a methane seep, or soil or even the human intestine. The head of the research group, Prof. Dr. Antje Boetius, adds: "This study represents the first global view on microbes inhabiting methane seeps. It was enabled by a large international effort, the International Census of Marine Microbes.”
Methane seeps accommodate many specialists
Natural methane seeps (cold seeps) are found worldwide at continental margins. The gas is formed by decomposition processes in the anoxic layers deep down in the sediment, moves upwards and escapes at the seafloor. The uppermost sediment layers harbor methane oxidizers, which consume about three-quarters of the escaping methane.
This is equivalent to 60 million tons of carbon per year. At methane seeps, the primary energy source is completely different from those of the surrounding seabed. Thus, like oases in the desert methane sources attract particular organisms. These include groups with known function, such as anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea (ANME) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). However, the researchers also found microbial groups on the methane sources with unknown function.
Emil Ruff, first author of the study, said: "It was surprising that microorganisms from seeps that are thousands of miles away in different oceans, are so closely related. Many methane oxidizers and sulfate reducers are sensitive to oxygen. Therefore, it is a mystery how they survive the great distances between the methane seeps."
The findings of the researchers suggest that only a few worldwide populations are responsible for the bulk of the methane consumption. The vast diversity of species and the evolution of new species, however, is limited to and can only be found at certain sites. Methane seeps thus contribute greatly to the biodiversity of the deep sea.
Global dispersion and local diversification of the methane seep microbiome
Emil Ruff, Jennifer F. Biddle, Andreas Teske, Katrin Knittel, Antje Boetius, Alban Ramette PNAS 2015, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1421865112.
Emil Ruff, Max Plank Institute for Marine Microbiology, Bremen: +49 421 2028 942; firstname.lastname@example.org
or from the press officer
Manfred Schlösser, Max Plank Institute for Marine Microbiology, Bremen: +49 421 2028 704 email@example.com
Dr. Manfred Schloesser | Max-Planck-Institut für marine Mikrobiologie
Rainbow colors reveal cell history: Uncovering β-cell heterogeneity
22.09.2017 | DFG-Forschungszentrum für Regenerative Therapien TU Dresden
The pyrenoid is a carbon-fixing liquid droplet
22.09.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für Biochemie
Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.
A warming planet
Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.
The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...
Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...
Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!
When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...
For the first time, physicists have successfully imaged spiral magnetic ordering in a multiferroic material. These materials are considered highly promising candidates for future data storage media. The researchers were able to prove their findings using unique quantum sensors that were developed at Basel University and that can analyze electromagnetic fields on the nanometer scale. The results – obtained by scientists from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics, the Swiss Nanoscience Institute, the University of Montpellier and several laboratories from University Paris-Saclay – were recently published in the journal Nature.
Multiferroics are materials that simultaneously react to electric and magnetic fields. These two properties are rarely found together, and their combined...
19.09.2017 | Event News
12.09.2017 | Event News
06.09.2017 | Event News
22.09.2017 | Life Sciences
22.09.2017 | Medical Engineering
22.09.2017 | Physics and Astronomy