DNA molecules in the cells‘ nuclei are neatly folded into loops. This serves to wrap them up tightly, but also to bring distant gene regulatory sequences into close contact. In a paper published this week by NATURE, scientists at the Research Institute of Molecular Pathology (IMP) in Vienna describe how cohesin might do the trick.
Twenty years ago, the protein complex cohesin was first described by researchers at the IMP. They found that its shape strikingly corresponds to its function: when a cell divides, the ring-shaped structure of cohesin keeps sister-chromatids tied together until they are ready to separate.
Schematic illustration of the loop-extrusion mechanism (Copyright: IMP)
Apart from this important role during cell-divison, other crucial functions of cohesin have been discovered since - at the IMP and elsewhere. One of them is to help fold the DNA, which amounts to about two meters per nucleus, into a compact size by way of creating loops. “We think that the cohesin-ring clamps onto the DNA-strand to hold the loops in place”, says IMP-director Jan-Michael Peters whose team worked on the project.
The chromatin-loops are not folded at random. Their exact shape and position play an important role in gene regulation, as they bring otherwise distant areas into close contact. “For a long time, scientists were mystified by how regulatory elements – the enhancers – are able to activate distant genes. Now we think we know the trick: precisely folded loops allow enhancers to come very close to the genes they need to regulate”, says Peters. Research results point to cohesin as mediator of this process. Jan-Michael Peters and his team have already shown that the cohesin complex accumulates in areas where loops are formed.
Several scientists recently proposed a so-called “loop-extrusion mechanism” for the folding of chromatin. According to this hypothesis, cohesin is loaded onto DNA at a random site. The DNA strain is then fed through the ring-shaped complex until it encounters a molecular barrier. This element, a DNA-binding protein named CTCF, acts much like a knot tied in a rope and stops the extrusion-process at the correct position. Defined genome-sequences that were previously located far apart are now next to each other and can interact to regulate gene expression.
In NATURE online this week, IMP-researchers publish data that support the existence of such a mechanism. First author Georg Busslinger, a PhD-student in Jan-Michael Peters’ team, showed in mouse cells that cohesin is indeed translocated on DNA over long distances and that the movement depends on transcription, suggesting that this may serve as a ‘motor’.
“The loop extrusion hypothesis has opened up a whole new research area in cell biology and we will probably see many more papers published on this topic in the future”, comments Jan-Michael Peters. Understanding cohesin-function is also relevant from a medical perspective since a number of disorders, including certain cancers, are associated with malfunctions of the protein-complex.
Busslinger GA, Stocsits RR, van der Lelij P, Axelsson E, Tedeschi A, Galjart N und Peters J-M: Cohesin is positioned in mammalian genomes by transcription, CTCF and Wapl. Nature Advance Online Publication, 19 April 2017, http://rdcu.be/rsMu.
A News-Feature on the topic was published by NATURE simultaneously: http://www.nature.com/news/dna-s-secret-weapon-against-knots-and-tangles-1.21838
An illustration can be downloaded and used free of charge in connection with this press release: https://www.imp.ac.at/news-media/downloads/
Caption: Schematic illustration of the loop-extrusion mechanism (Copyright: IMP)
About the IMP
The Research Institute of Molecular Pathology (IMP) in Vienna is a basic biomedical research institute largely sponsored by Boehringer Ingelheim. With over 200 scientists from 37 nations, the IMP is committed to scientific discovery of fundamental molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying complex biological phenomena. Research areas include cell and molecular biology, neurobiology, disease mechanisms and computational biology.
Research Institute of Molecular Pathology
+43 (0)1 79730 3625
Dr. Heidemarie Hurtl | idw - Informationsdienst Wissenschaft
Multifunctional bacterial microswimmer able to deliver cargo and destroy itself
26.04.2018 | Max-Planck-Institut für Intelligente Systeme
ADP-ribosylation on the right track
26.04.2018 | Max-Planck-Institut für Biologie des Alterns
Magnetic resonance imaging, or MRI, is a widely used medical tool for taking pictures of the insides of our body. One way to make MRI scans easier to read is...
At the Hannover Messe 2018, the Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und-prüfung (BAM) will show how, in the future, astronauts could produce their own tools or spare parts in zero gravity using 3D printing. This will reduce, weight and transport costs for space missions. Visitors can experience the innovative additive manufacturing process live at the fair.
Powder-based additive manufacturing in zero gravity is the name of the project in which a component is produced by applying metallic powder layers and then...
Physicists at the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics, which is jointly run by Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, have developed a high-power laser system that generates ultrashort pulses of light covering a large share of the mid-infrared spectrum. The researchers envisage a wide range of applications for the technology – in the early diagnosis of cancer, for instance.
Molecules are the building blocks of life. Like all other organisms, we are made of them. They control our biorhythm, and they can also reflect our state of...
University of Connecticut researchers have created a biodegradable composite made of silk fibers that can be used to repair broken load-bearing bones without the complications sometimes presented by other materials.
Repairing major load-bearing bones such as those in the leg can be a long and uncomfortable process.
Study published in the journal ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces is the outcome of an international effort that included teams from Dresden and Berlin in Germany, and the US.
Scientists at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) together with colleagues from the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) and the University of Virginia...
13.04.2018 | Event News
12.04.2018 | Event News
09.04.2018 | Event News
26.04.2018 | Physics and Astronomy
26.04.2018 | Life Sciences
26.04.2018 | Medical Engineering