Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Iron regulators join war on pathogens

17.07.2015

Proteins responsible for controlling levels of iron in the body also play an important role in combatting infection, according to a study published today in Cell Host & Microbe.

Humans - along with all living organisms, including pathogens - need iron to survive: invading organisms try to highjack it from their hosts in order to thrive and multiply. Researchers at EMBL Heidelberg, and their colleagues, have now discovered that proteins responsible for helping the body maintain the correct levels of iron at a cellular level are also involved in helping to prevent this theft. These proteins form a system called IRP/IRE (iron regulatory protein/iron responsive element).


Fluorescence microscopy picture of bone marrow-derived macrophages: red: macrophage marker/ blue: DNA /green: ferritin. Compared to the few control cells present in this picture, IRP-null macrophages express abnormally high levels of ferritin (green), which constitutes a pool of iron Salmonella can exploit.

Credit: Bruno Galy/DKFZ

"The work we've been doing has uncovered a connection between two very important functions that are typically seen as separate: the body's innate immune system, and its iron metabolism," explains Matthias Hentze, co-author of the paper and Director of EMBL.

The team analysed how mice reacted to an infection by the Salmonella bacteria, depending on whether they had a functional IRP/IRE system or not. Mice lacking a functional IRP/IRE system from professional immune cells called macrophages did well as long as they were not infected, but when the Salmonella bacteria were introduced, they died. This showed that the iron regulatory system was crucial for the macrophages, the target-cells for this specific pathogen, to fight off the infection effectively.

"Withholding iron from an invading pathogen is an innate defence against infection," explains Bruno Galy, former Staff Scientist at EMBL-Heidelberg and currently group leader at the German Cancer Research Centre (DKFZ). "Our study reveals that the IRP/IRE system plays an important role in this defence."

The precise mechanisms through which the IRP/IRE system works in the macrophages will need further investigation, although the researchers have a number of theories.

One theory is that the IRP proteins help the macrophages produce a molecule called lipocalin 2, which is known to block bacteria from taking up iron from its host. Another idea is that the IRP/IRE system represses the expression of a protein called ferritin. Ferritin is present in cells as a kind of compartment to store iron until it is needed. Invading bacteria get access to these iron supplies and if the IRP proteins are not present, the cell will store much more iron than required - thus providing valuable nutrients for invaders.

The group now plan to carry out further investigations to find out if the IRP/IRE system is also important for other types of bacteria, and other types of infection, such as viruses or parasites. They also hope to discover if the IRP/IRE system has a role to play in other types of immune response, such as inflammation. This immune response is implicated in the progress of human diseases such as cancer or atherosclerosis so a better understanding of its mechanisms could have implications for research into new treatments.

The research was carried out in partnership with Guenter Weiss and colleagues at the Medical University of Innsbruck and Ferric Fang at the University of Washington.

Media Contact

Isabelle Kling
isabelle.kling@embl.de
49-622-138-78355

 @EMBLorg

http://www.embl.org 

Isabelle Kling | European Molecular Biology Laboratory

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Multi-institutional collaboration uncovers how molecular machines assemble
02.12.2016 | Salk Institute

nachricht Fertilized egg cells trigger and monitor loss of sperm’s epigenetic memory
02.12.2016 | IMBA - Institut für Molekulare Biotechnologie der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften GmbH

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

Im Focus: MADMAX: Max Planck Institute for Physics takes up axion research

The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.

The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...

Im Focus: Molecules change shape when wet

Broadband rotational spectroscopy unravels structural reshaping of isolated molecules in the gas phase to accommodate water

In two recent publications in the Journal of Chemical Physics and in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, researchers around Melanie Schnell from the Max...

Im Focus: Fraunhofer ISE Develops Highly Compact, High Frequency DC/DC Converter for Aviation

The efficiency of power electronic systems is not solely dependent on electrical efficiency but also on weight, for example, in mobile systems. When the weight of relevant components and devices in airplanes, for instance, is reduced, fuel savings can be achieved and correspondingly greenhouse gas emissions decreased. New materials and components based on gallium nitride (GaN) can help to reduce weight and increase the efficiency. With these new materials, power electronic switches can be operated at higher switching frequency, resulting in higher power density and lower material costs.

Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE together with partners have investigated how these materials can be used to make power...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

UTSA study describes new minimally invasive device to treat cancer and other illnesses

02.12.2016 | Medical Engineering

Plasma-zapping process could yield trans fat-free soybean oil product

02.12.2016 | Agricultural and Forestry Science

What do Netflix, Google and planetary systems have in common?

02.12.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>