Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Heidelberg Researchers Find Unusually Elastic Protein

23.01.2015

Molecular elasticity may have originated in cnidarian elastomer

Scientists at Heidelberg University have discovered an unusually elastic protein in one of the most ancient groups of animals, the over 600-million-year-old cnidarians. The protein is a part of the “weapons system” that the cnidarians use: a kind of harpoon launched from their body at extremely high speed.

The discovery of the hitherto unknown protein in the freshwater polyp Hydra suggests that the molecular mechanism of elasticity could have originated in the cnidarians and evolved to discharge a deadly weapon. Due to the similarity of the protein’s amino acid sequence to spidroin of spider silk, the researchers from the Centre for Organismal Studies dubbed the elastic protein cnidoin. The results of the research were published in the journal “BMC Biology”.

Elastomeric proteins evolved in a diverse range of animals and often fulfil highly specialised biological functions as the elastin in the pulmonary alveoli of higher vertebrates, the resilin in the wing joints of insects or the spidroin in the threads of spider silk. They give tissues mechanical properties that exceed those of artificial materials.

These proteins, known as elastomers, share a common property – structurally disordered, repetitive protein sequences that store energy when a molecule is stretched which then can be used in the form of a movement after release. These movements can be rhythmical, as in the blood vessels leaving the heart. Or they can be single, explosive movements, as in the jump of a grasshopper.

In their experiments on the freshwater polyp Hydra, the research team of Assistant Professor Dr. Suat Özbek and Prof. Dr. Thomas Holstein at the Centre for Organismal Studies (COS) demonstrated that cnidoin is part of the cnidarian weaponry – the stinging capsules. These organelles help jellyfish, corals and sea anemones capture prey and ward off enemies.

When touched, a tubule is ejected within nanoseconds in a harpoon-like fashion from the interior of the highly pressurised capsule. The discharge of the stinging thread is one of the fastest processes known in the animal kingdom. Its barbed tip injects poisons through the stinging thread that paralyse or kill the attacker or prey within seconds. “Cnidoin is a structural component of the capsule wall, which is elastically stretched prior to discharge and firing of the harpoon,” explains Dr. Özbek.

Together with other researchers in Heidelberg and Munich, the scientists at COS investigated the biomechanical properties of cnidoin. Force measurements were performed on single molecules and computer simulations conducted.

The special properties of the elastic protein are principally responsible for the enormous acceleration of the “harpoon tip” that occurs during the discharge process and, according to Dr. Özbek, exceeds five million g. “The biomechanical properties of cnidoin are comparable to those of other elastomers. However, cnidoin evidences extraordinarily fast recoil, probably due to the extensive cross-linking to the dense capsule wall.”

The researcher points out that the molecular mechanism of elasticity emerged several times in the animal kingdom, independently of each other. “From an evolutionary standpoint, however, cnidoin is oldest elastic protein reported so far,” states Suat Özbek. “We therefore assume that this elasticity originated in the cnidaria and evolved as part of their ‘weapons system’.”

Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Petrich of Heidelberg University's Kirchhoff Institute for Physics and Prof. Dr. Frauke Gräter of the Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies (HITS) also participated in the research, along with physicist Dr. Martin Benoit from LMU Munich.

Original publication:
A. Beckmann, S. Xiao, J.P. Müller, D. Mercadante, T. Nüchter, N. Kröger, F. Langhojer, W. Petrich, T.W. Holstein, M. Benoit, F. Gräter and S. Özbek: A Fast Recoiling Silk-like Elastomer Facilitates Nanosecond Nematocyst Discharge, BMC Biology.2015, 13:3 (16 January 2015), doi: 10.1186/s12915-014-0113-1

Contact:
Assistant Professor Dr. Suat Özbek
Centre for Organismal Studies
Phone: +49 6221 54-5638
suat.oezbek@cos.uni-heidelberg.de

Communications and Marketing
Press Office, phone: +49 6221 54-2311
presse@rektorat.uni-heidelberg.de

Weitere Informationen:

http://www.cos.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/s.Oezbek?l=_e

Marietta Fuhrmann-Koch | idw - Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht The interactome of infected neural cells reveals new therapeutic targets for Zika
23.01.2017 | D'Or Institute for Research and Education

nachricht Ion treatments for cardiac arrhythmia — Non-invasive alternative to catheter-based surgery
20.01.2017 | GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Quantum optical sensor for the first time tested in space – with a laser system from Berlin

For the first time ever, a cloud of ultra-cold atoms has been successfully created in space on board of a sounding rocket. The MAIUS mission demonstrates that quantum optical sensors can be operated even in harsh environments like space – a prerequi-site for finding answers to the most challenging questions of fundamental physics and an important innovation driver for everyday applications.

According to Albert Einstein's Equivalence Principle, all bodies are accelerated at the same rate by the Earth's gravity, regardless of their properties. This...

Im Focus: Traffic jam in empty space

New success for Konstanz physicists in studying the quantum vacuum

An important step towards a completely new experimental access to quantum physics has been made at University of Konstanz. The team of scientists headed by...

Im Focus: How gut bacteria can make us ill

HZI researchers decipher infection mechanisms of Yersinia and immune responses of the host

Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...

Im Focus: Interfacial Superconductivity: Magnetic and superconducting order revealed simultaneously

Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.

While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...

Im Focus: Studying fundamental particles in materials

Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales

Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Sustainable Water use in Agriculture in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

19.01.2017 | Event News

12V, 48V, high-voltage – trends in E/E automotive architecture

10.01.2017 | Event News

2nd Conference on Non-Textual Information on 10 and 11 May 2017 in Hannover

09.01.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

New technology for mass-production of complex molded composite components

23.01.2017 | Process Engineering

Quantum optical sensor for the first time tested in space – with a laser system from Berlin

23.01.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

The interactome of infected neural cells reveals new therapeutic targets for Zika

23.01.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>