Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

FLUCS – An interactive microscope for biologists

05.02.2018

Simple motion inside biological cells, such as the streaming of cytoplasm is believed to be essential for the development of organisms. Due to the lack of suitable tools, this intracellular motion could not be tested yet. Now, researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics (MPI-CBG) in Dresden found a way to control motion within living embryos. Rather than using microscopes simply for observations, the team around Moritz Kreysing managed to actively guide developmental processes in worm embryos by a new cell-biological technique - FLUCS. This new technology paves the way to understand how complex organisms develop and what keeps them protected from disease.

A central question in biology is how entire organisms develop from single fertilized eggs. And although genetic research has revealed deep insights into this enigmatic subject in recent years, one particular aspect of development remained elusive. For an organism to develop a structured body, biomolecules need to move to specific sites inside the embryo, similar to building material on a construction site.


Researchers generate flows in early embryos to guide organism development.

Mittasch et.al. / MPI-CBG

A particularly important example for this distribution of material inside cells is the polarization of an embryo, which defines where the head and tail of a worm will grow. But until now, it has remained controversial which transport mechanisms define this head-tail polarization so precisely, because it was not possible to move the inside of an embryo without harming it.

A team of researchers around Moritz Kreysing in collaboration with other groups at MPI-CBG, as well as the Faculty of Mathematics and the Biotechnology Center, both of the TU Dresden, has now succeeded in inducing controlled flows in living embryos with a non-invasive laser technology called FLUCS (focused-light-induced-cytoplasmic-streaming). With this truly revolutionary tool at hand (see figure), the researchers were able to probe the function of cytoplasmic motion in the process of embryo polarization.

Matthäus Mittasch, the leading author of the study says: “With FLUCS, microscopy of growing embryos becomes truly interactive”. And indeed: with the help of realistic computer simulations the researchers even managed to reverse the head-to-tail body axis of worm embryos with FLUCS, leading to inverted development.

Lead investigator Moritz Kreysing, with a dual affiliation to the Center for Systems Biology Dresden, concludes: “The ability to actively move the interior of biological cells will help to understand how these cells change shape, how they move, divide, respond to external signals, and ultimately how entire organisms emerge guided by microscale motion.” On the medical side, FLUCS has the potential to improve our understanding of developmental defects, aid in-vitro fertilization, organism cloning, and the discovery of new drugs.

Original Publication:
“Non-invasive perturbations of intracellular flow reveal physical principles of cell organization.” Matthäus Mittasch, Peter Groß, Michael Nestler, Anatol W. Fritsch, Christiane Iserman, Mrityunjoy Kar, Matthias Munder, Axel Voigt, Simon Alberti, Stephan W. Grill, and Moritz Kreysing: Nature Cell Biology, 20(3), 2018. https://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41556-017-0032-9

About the MPI-CBG
The Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics (MPI-CBG) is one of 84 institutes of the Max Planck Society, an independent, non-profit organization in Germany. 500 curiosity-driven scientists from over 50 countries ask: How do cells form tissues? The basic research programs of the MPI-CBG span multiple scales of magnitude, from molecular assemblies to organelles, cells, tissues, organs, and organisms.

Weitere Informationen:

http://www.mpi-cbg.de
https://www.mpi-cbg.de/en/research-groups/current-groups/moritz-kreysing/researc...

Katrin Boes | Max-Planck-Institut für molekulare Zellbiologie und Genetik

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht One step closer to reality
20.04.2018 | Max-Planck-Institut für Entwicklungsbiologie

nachricht The dark side of cichlid fish: from cannibal to caregiver
20.04.2018 | Veterinärmedizinische Universität Wien

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Spider silk key to new bone-fixing composite

University of Connecticut researchers have created a biodegradable composite made of silk fibers that can be used to repair broken load-bearing bones without the complications sometimes presented by other materials.

Repairing major load-bearing bones such as those in the leg can be a long and uncomfortable process.

Im Focus: Writing and deleting magnets with lasers

Study published in the journal ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces is the outcome of an international effort that included teams from Dresden and Berlin in Germany, and the US.

Scientists at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) together with colleagues from the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) and the University of Virginia...

Im Focus: Gamma-ray flashes from plasma filaments

Novel highly efficient and brilliant gamma-ray source: Based on model calculations, physicists of the Max PIanck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg propose a novel method for an efficient high-brilliance gamma-ray source. A giant collimated gamma-ray pulse is generated from the interaction of a dense ultra-relativistic electron beam with a thin solid conductor. Energetic gamma-rays are copiously produced as the electron beam splits into filaments while propagating across the conductor. The resulting gamma-ray energy and flux enable novel experiments in nuclear and fundamental physics.

The typical wavelength of light interacting with an object of the microcosm scales with the size of this object. For atoms, this ranges from visible light to...

Im Focus: Basel researchers succeed in cultivating cartilage from stem cells

Stable joint cartilage can be produced from adult stem cells originating from bone marrow. This is made possible by inducing specific molecular processes occurring during embryonic cartilage formation, as researchers from the University and University Hospital of Basel report in the scientific journal PNAS.

Certain mesenchymal stem/stromal cells from the bone marrow of adults are considered extremely promising for skeletal tissue regeneration. These adult stem...

Im Focus: Like a wedge in a hinge

Researchers lay groundwork to tailor drugs for new targets in cancer therapy

In the fight against cancer, scientists are developing new drugs to hit tumor cells at so far unused weak points. Such a “sore spot” is the protein complex...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Invitation to the upcoming "Current Topics in Bioinformatics: Big Data in Genomics and Medicine"

13.04.2018 | Event News

Unique scope of UV LED technologies and applications presented in Berlin: ICULTA-2018

12.04.2018 | Event News

IWOLIA: A conference bringing together German Industrie 4.0 and French Industrie du Futur

09.04.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Magnetic nano-imaging on a table top

20.04.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

Start of work for the world's largest electric truck

20.04.2018 | Interdisciplinary Research

Atoms may hum a tune from grand cosmic symphony

20.04.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>