Study finds new ways of measuring synchrony in ecology
How does an acorn know to fall when the other acorns do? What triggers insects, or disease, to suddenly break out over large areas? Why do fruit trees have boom and bust years?
This image illustrates local population density near a critical transition in the synchrony of an ecological system.
Credit: UC Davis
The question of what generates such synchronous, ecological "flash mobs" over long distances has long perplexed population ecologists. Part of the answer has to do with something seemingly unrelated: what makes a magnet a magnet.
A study by scientists at the University of California, Davis, found that the same mathematical model that's been used to study how magnets work - a well-known concept in physics called the Ising model -- can be applied to understanding what causes events to occur at the same time over long distances, despite the absence of an external, disruptive force.
The work, published online April 8 in the journal Nature Communications, provides new ways of measuring synchrony in ecology, which has broader implications for things like extinction and disease.
ANIMAL -- AND FRUIT TREE -- MAGNETISM
What does all of this have to do with the magnet holding up the to-do list on your refrigerator?
Consider the vole.
"They get kicked out of the nest and have a typical distance they travel," said co-leading author Alan Hastings, a professor in the Department of Environmental Science and Policy. "But the populations are rising and falling over much longer distances. The effect on the voles is happening much farther than that individual vole travels in his lifetime."
That effect can be explained by the Ising model, according to the study.
Or, take fruit trees.
Every few years certain trees bear exceptional amounts of fruit or nuts in between years when they produce almost none in a poorly understood process called masting.
"All the fruit trees have their big year on the same year because of the same model that has to do with getting little magnets lined up at once to create a big-scale magnet," Hastings explained. "Improving our understanding of models that describe how things go into synchrony over long distances is very important for understanding population dynamics."
The work was funded by the National Science Foundation's INSPIRE program, which supports interdisciplinary collaborations between scientific fields that don't often work together.
"Our paper forges an unexpectedly strong connection between physics and population biology," said co-leading author Andrew Noble, a UC Davis project scientist. "It's the discovery of a common framework for understanding seemingly unrelated scientific questions."
Alan Hastings | EurekAlert!
Ion treatments for cardiac arrhythmia — Non-invasive alternative to catheter-based surgery
20.01.2017 | GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH
Seeking structure with metagenome sequences
20.01.2017 | DOE/Joint Genome Institute
An important step towards a completely new experimental access to quantum physics has been made at University of Konstanz. The team of scientists headed by...
Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...
Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.
While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...
Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales
Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...
Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.
As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...
19.01.2017 | Event News
10.01.2017 | Event News
09.01.2017 | Event News
20.01.2017 | Awards Funding
20.01.2017 | Materials Sciences
20.01.2017 | Life Sciences