Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Deep-sea mussels with highly toxic tenants

22.09.2015

Bacteria inhabiting deep-sea hot vents as symbiotic tenants of mussels are equipped with a whole arsenal of toxins – more than any known pathogen. Find out about this discovery, and why it is rather healthy than harmful for the mussels, in a new publication by MPI scientists in the open-access journal eLife

Imagine you have a tenant living in your house. They’re keeping your fridge topped up. But in addition to this, they’re producing all kinds of toxic substances. More harm than good? Not necessarily; it all depends what you’re using the toxins for.


Bathymodiolus mussels at the Menez Gwen hydrothermal vent off the Azores, pictured during Meteor cruise M82/3.

MARUM, University of Bremen/Germany

Deep-sea hot vents are one of the most unusual habitats on Earth: At first sight they appear hostile and uninviting, but in fact, they are teeming oases of life. Likewise, their unique inhabitants are always surprising us. Find out how toxic tenants can also be beneficial in a new publication by an international research team led by Jillian Petersen from the Max Planck Institute (MPI) for Marine Microbiology, published in the open-access journal eLife.

Mussels of the genus Bathymodiolus, related to the well-known blue mussel, are among the most dominant inhabitants of hot vents in the deep ocean. In their gills, they house so-called chemoautrotrophic symbionts. These symbionts include sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, which convert substances normally not used by the mussels into tasty sugars.

Jillian Petersen and her colleagues have now taken a closer look at the genes that some of the symbiotic tenants of deep-sea mussels contain in their genomes. To their surprise, what they found was a vast array of hazardous substances. The symbiotic bacteria command an arsenal of genes that are responsible for the production of toxins. The number of toxins is impressive: With up to 60 toxins, the microorganism’s arsenal is better stocked than many nasty germs such as those that cause pest and cholera. However, down in the deep sea, the bacteria leave their host unharmed. In fact, they promote the health of their mussel hosts. How is this possible?

“We suspect that they bacteria have tamed these toxins”, explains Petersen. “Thus, they can now take advantage of them for the benefit their host.” Two kinds of beneficial effects of the toxins are possible: On the one hand, they might help mussels and bacteria to find and to recognize each other, essential steps to establishing a successful symbiosis. On the other hand, the toxins may help the mussel to defend itself against parasites.

“Symbioses are usually assumed to have only one benefit – the symbionts either help the host to feed or to defend itself. Our study shows that the partnership of Bathymodiolus and the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria seems to provide both: defence and food. That is very unusual”, emphasizes Lizbeth Sayavedra, who conducted the research as part of her doctoral thesis. The tenant not only fills the fridge, it also keeps the burglars out.

In the next steps, Petersen now wants to investigate the details of this defence mechanism. The research team has developed a method proving that at least one of the toxins is exported to the mussel tissue. “Our results give fresh impetus to the research on the role of parasites and pathogens in the deep sea”, says Petersen, who has recently established an independent research group at the University of Vienna.

“The Bathymodiolus symbionts produce more of these supposedly harmful substances than any known pathogen”, adds Liz Sayavedra. “Who knows – maybe one day we’ll discover that some of the genes that are currently annotated as toxins may have first evolved through such beneficial interactions.”

Fanni Aspetsberger

Original publication:

Sayavedra et al. (2015) Abundant toxin-related genes in the genomes of beneficial symbionts from deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussels. eLife 2015;10.7554/eLife.07966

Weitere Informationen:

http://www.mpi-bremen.de Website of the MPI
http://elifesciences.org/content/early/2015/09/14/eLife.07966 Original article

Dr. Manfred Schloesser | Max-Planck-Institut für marine Mikrobiologie

Further reports about: Deep-sea Max-Planck-Institut genes genomes mussels symbiotic toxic toxins

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht How brains surrender to sleep
23.06.2017 | IMP - Forschungsinstitut für Molekulare Pathologie GmbH

nachricht A new technique isolates neuronal activity during memory consolidation
22.06.2017 | Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Can we see monkeys from space? Emerging technologies to map biodiversity

An international team of scientists has proposed a new multi-disciplinary approach in which an array of new technologies will allow us to map biodiversity and the risks that wildlife is facing at the scale of whole landscapes. The findings are published in Nature Ecology and Evolution. This international research is led by the Kunming Institute of Zoology from China, University of East Anglia, University of Leicester and the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research.

Using a combination of satellite and ground data, the team proposes that it is now possible to map biodiversity with an accuracy that has not been previously...

Im Focus: Climate satellite: Tracking methane with robust laser technology

Heatwaves in the Arctic, longer periods of vegetation in Europe, severe floods in West Africa – starting in 2021, scientists want to explore the emissions of the greenhouse gas methane with the German-French satellite MERLIN. This is made possible by a new robust laser system of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, which achieves unprecedented measurement accuracy.

Methane is primarily the result of the decomposition of organic matter. The gas has a 25 times greater warming potential than carbon dioxide, but is not as...

Im Focus: How protons move through a fuel cell

Hydrogen is regarded as the energy source of the future: It is produced with solar power and can be used to generate heat and electricity in fuel cells. Empa researchers have now succeeded in decoding the movement of hydrogen ions in crystals – a key step towards more efficient energy conversion in the hydrogen industry of tomorrow.

As charge carriers, electrons and ions play the leading role in electrochemical energy storage devices and converters such as batteries and fuel cells. Proton...

Im Focus: A unique data centre for cosmological simulations

Scientists from the Excellence Cluster Universe at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich have establised "Cosmowebportal", a unique data centre for cosmological simulations located at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. The complete results of a series of large hydrodynamical cosmological simulations are available, with data volumes typically exceeding several hundred terabytes. Scientists worldwide can interactively explore these complex simulations via a web interface and directly access the results.

With current telescopes, scientists can observe our Universe’s galaxies and galaxy clusters and their distribution along an invisible cosmic web. From the...

Im Focus: Scientists develop molecular thermometer for contactless measurement using infrared light

Temperature measurements possible even on the smallest scale / Molecular ruby for use in material sciences, biology, and medicine

Chemists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in cooperation with researchers of the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM)...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Plants are networkers

19.06.2017 | Event News

Digital Survival Training for Executives

13.06.2017 | Event News

Global Learning Council Summit 2017

13.06.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Can we see monkeys from space? Emerging technologies to map biodiversity

23.06.2017 | Information Technology

Understanding animal social networks can aid wildlife conservation

23.06.2017 | Ecology, The Environment and Conservation

A new technique isolates neuronal activity during memory consolidation

22.06.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>