Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Decoding the Tree of Life

12.12.2014

UF geneticist contributes to groundbreaking study of bird evolution

Nature abhors a vacuum, which may explain the findings of a new study showing that bird evolution exploded 65 million years ago when nearly everything else on earth -- dinosaurs included -- died out.

The study is part of an ambitious project, published in today's issue of the journal Science, in which hundreds of scientists worldwide have decoded the avian genome.

Edward Braun, an evolutionary geneticist at the University of Florida and the UF Genetics Institute, is one of the key scientists who took part in this multi-year project that used nine supercomputers and 400 years of combined computing time to sequence 48 bird genomes representing the 10,500 living species of birds on the planet.

In 2008, Braun worked with scientists at UF and four other institutions to analyze 19 bird genes. This initial study suggested that the diversity of bird evolution occurred very quickly. Now Braun and scientists from Duke University, the Natural History Museum of Denmark, the Beijing Genomics Institute at Shenzhen, the University of Illinois, and many other institutions have built on that effort.

"Six years later, we have whole genomes," he said. "That's a major accomplishment. The ornithology books will change."

The asteroid strike that triggered the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction was bad news for dinosaurs, but may have created an opening for birds.

"The birds we see today probably diversified into that. That's probably why it happened so fast," said Braun. "Can we pick out what the very first split is? The answer is that for the first time, using whole genomes, it appears we can."

From hummingbirds to herons, 95 percent of avians belong to an order called neoaves (nee-oh-AY-veez). Of this group, 90 percent belong to a group called Passerea and 5 percent called Columbea comprising doves, flamingos and grebes.

"Flamingos and grebes are enough of an odd couple," said Braun. "Throw in a dove, and that's a really odd collection."

The genomic evidence belies common inference that birds of a feather flock together. The Columbea group shows a kinship between water birds and land birds.

One might assume the duck to be closely related to other water birds, but it's on a separate branch of the tree altogether. It was once assumed that grebes and loons belonged together because they're both foot-propelled divers. Like the 2008 study, this study shows otherwise.

Braun, along with Eric Triplett from the UF Department of Microbiology and Cell Science, also were principal investigators comparing three species of crocodilians -- the American alligator, saltwater crocodile and Indian gharial. The inclusion of the crocodilians not only provided a study in contrast but also provided researchers with the ability to reconstruct part of the genome of the common ancestor of archosaurs, the group that includes crocodilians, birds and extinct dinosaurs.

Whereas birds evolved rapidly, crocodilians evolved slowly. The DNA of slowly-evolving organisms is a gold mine for researchers as it allows them to find more things in the genetic structure. Braun looked for evidence of ancient viruses in the genomes in an effort led by Alex Suh from Uppsala University in Sweden.

"We were able to see evidence of viral infections that occurred during the age of the dinosaurs. The oldest we found is 200 million years old," said Braun. "The fact that you can find ancient viruses in genomes is very cool."

Writer

Gigi Marino
352-294-3393 (o)
352-727-1282 (c)
gigimarino@ufl.edu

Source

Edward Braun
352-846-1124 (o)
352-562-3493 (c)
ebraun68@ufl.edu
http://people.biology.ufl.edu/ebraun/ 

Edward Braun | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.ufl.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht What happens in the cell nucleus after fertilization
06.12.2016 | Helmholtz Zentrum München - Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt

nachricht Researchers uncover protein-based “cancer signature”
05.12.2016 | Universität Basel

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Significantly more productivity in USP lasers

In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.

Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...

Im Focus: Shape matters when light meets atom

Mapping the interaction of a single atom with a single photon may inform design of quantum devices

Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

Im Focus: MADMAX: Max Planck Institute for Physics takes up axion research

The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.

The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

Simple processing technique could cut cost of organic PV and wearable electronics

06.12.2016 | Materials Sciences

3-D printed kidney phantoms aid nuclear medicine dosing calibration

06.12.2016 | Medical Engineering

Robot on demand: Mobile machining of aircraft components with high precision

06.12.2016 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>