Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Circadian clock not essential

25.09.2015

A circadian clock is not mandatory for living beings to adapt their activities to a day-night cycle – at least under certain conditions. Other mechanisms are capable of compensating for the loss of the molecular clock as researchers from the University of Würzburg have now shown.

Adapting their activities to the regular rhythm of day and night and of dark and light is crucial for animals.


Logo of the Collaborative Research Center "Insect timing: mechanisms, plasticity and interactions"

A bumblebee foraging at night-time to visit flowers will starve quickly and anyone looking for a mating partner while the latter is fast asleep will have little luck. The so-called "circadian clocks" therefore control behaviour and make sure that creatures can adapt to the changing circumstances of their environment.

A surprise for scientists

But this view of circadian clocks as central mechanisms that drive circadian rhythms was recently challenged. Scientists had found mice and the fruit fly Drosophila to exhibit a near normal activity pattern even when they were clockless. Observed over a period of two years in a more or less natural environment, their daily and season-related behaviour differed only slightly from that of "normal" specimens that had a circadian clock.

This ostensible contradiction was investigated by biologists Matthias Schlichting, Pamela Menegazzi and Charlotte Helfrich-Förster at the University of Würzburg's Biocenter. As Head of the Department of Neurobiology and Genetics, Charlotte Helfrich-Förster's research activities focus on chronobiology, the study of periodic (cyclic) phenomena in living organisms. She is also the spokeswoman of the Collaborative Research Center "Insect timing: mechanisms, plasticity and interactions" which was set up in early 2013 to study among other questions how circadian clocks work in animals.

Activities are controlled by multiple factors

As a matter of fact, the notion of an internal clock as the sole timing element does not reflect the complexity of the real circumstances. "The daily behaviour of living organisms is a combination of immediate responses to changes in the environment and processes controlled by the circadian clock," says Helfrich-Förster. These two protagonists interact to help organisms adjust to their environment in an optimal way. For example, an animal whose eyes are not adapted to darkness will stop its movements after nightfall. And ideally its circadian clock will make the animal stop its activities before it is dark the next day.

The researchers studied the mechanisms and protagonists involved in these complex processes and the way they interact using the example of the fruit fly. The study looked at healthy flies, clockless flies, eyeless flies and flies lacking other timing-related switches. During the laboratory experiments they were exposed to different light conditions: simulated dusk, almost natural light conditions and an abrupt change from light to dark and vice versa. The team has recently published its findings in the renowned journal Proceedings B of the Royal Society.

Twilight as the central stimulus

"We have demonstrated that the gradual increase or decrease in light in the laboratory was sufficient for the flies to exhibit their typical morning and evening activities," Charlotte Helfrich-Förster sums up the central result of the study. The flies' eyes compensate for the circadian clock in this case. Consequently, eyeless flies do not develop the usual activity patterns.

In contrast, the cryptochrome photoreceptor, another key timing element, did not have any influence on the behaviour. Located in special nerve cells, the so-called circadian neurons, it interacts with the timeless protein causing it to be degraded. Figuratively speaking, it turns the clock back to zero. Flies that lack this receptor still exhibit the typical daily activity patterns – if light conditions correspond to natural conditions.

The circadian clock sets the pace

Nevertheless, clockless fruit flies do show some behavioural differences. The clock seems to premonish the fly of the approaching dusk. "Clockless flies increase their evening activities at the onset of dusk and not – as the healthy specimens do – before," Charlotte Helfrich-Förster explains. They also respond strongly to being exposed to artificial twilight at midnight.

"Light is the key signal for fruit flies to adapt their activity patterns to the natural circumstances," the scientist recapitulates the study results. "And the eye plays the central role in registering the slight changes in light intensity in the morning and evening."

According to the biologist, this is good news for the living organisms that have mutations in genes related to the circadian clock. Under normal light conditions, they usually develop normal timing despite the missing clock. Other factors, such as temperature and air humidity, are the basis for a "fine tuning" capability under outdoor conditions allowing animals with a defective circadian clock to function as efficiently as those with a normally ticking clock.

Normal vision can compensate for the loss of the circadian clock. Matthias Schlichting, Pamela Menegazzi and Charlotte Helfrich-Förster. Proc. R. Soc. B 20151846.

Contact

Prof. Dr. Charlotte Förster, +49 931 31-88823, charlotte.foerster@biozentrum.uni-wuerzburg.de

Weitere Informationen:

http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2015.1846

Gunnar Bartsch | idw - Informationsdienst Wissenschaft
Further information:
http://www.uni-wuerzburg.de

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Unique genome architectures after fertilisation in single-cell embryos
30.03.2017 | IMBA - Institut für Molekulare Biotechnologie der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften GmbH

nachricht Transport of molecular motors into cilia
28.03.2017 | Aarhus University

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: A Challenging European Research Project to Develop New Tiny Microscopes

The Institute of Semiconductor Technology and the Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, both members of the Laboratory for Emerging Nanometrology (LENA), at Technische Universität Braunschweig are partners in a new European research project entitled ChipScope, which aims to develop a completely new and extremely small optical microscope capable of observing the interior of living cells in real time. A consortium of 7 partners from 5 countries will tackle this issue with very ambitious objectives during a four-year research program.

To demonstrate the usefulness of this new scientific tool, at the end of the project the developed chip-sized microscope will be used to observe in real-time...

Im Focus: Giant Magnetic Fields in the Universe

Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.

The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.

Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...

Im Focus: Tracing down linear ubiquitination

Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.

Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...

Im Focus: Perovskite edges can be tuned for optoelectronic performance

Layered 2D material improves efficiency for solar cells and LEDs

In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...

Im Focus: Polymer-coated silicon nanosheets as alternative to graphene: A perfect team for nanoelectronics

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

International Land Use Symposium ILUS 2017: Call for Abstracts and Registration open

20.03.2017 | Event News

CONNECT 2017: International congress on connective tissue

14.03.2017 | Event News

ICTM Conference: Turbine Construction between Big Data and Additive Manufacturing

07.03.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

'On-off switch' brings researchers a step closer to potential HIV vaccine

30.03.2017 | Health and Medicine

Penn studies find promise for innovations in liquid biopsies

30.03.2017 | Health and Medicine

An LED-based device for imaging radiation induced skin damage

30.03.2017 | Medical Engineering

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>