Study explains the link between cilia and diabetes
Tiny extensions on cells, cilia, play an important role in insulin release, according to a new study, which is published in Nature Communications. The researchers report that the cilia of beta cells in the pancreas are covered with insulin receptors and that changed ciliary function can be associated with the development of type 2 diabetes.
Cilia are tiny extensions on cells and they are credited with many important functions, including transduction of signals in cells. Defects in cilia have been implied in several diseases and pathological conditions. Thus, scientists at Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm, University College London and the Helmholtz Zentrum München (HMGU) took interest in the role of cilia in blood glucose regulation and type 2-diabetes.
"It has been known for some time that the rate of type 2 diabetes is above average in people with ciliopathy, which is a pathological ciliary dysfunction", says Jantje Gerdes, previously at Karolinska Institutet and now at the Institute of Diabetes and Regeneration Research at the HMGU, first author of the study. "Our results confirm this observation and additionally explain how cilia are linked to glucose metabolism and diabetes."
The researchers investigated the function of ciliary cell extensions in the insulin-secreting pancreatic beta cells. Insulin is the hormone that reduces blood glucose levels. When the investigators stimulated the beta cells with glucose the number of insulin receptors on their cilia increased. When circulating insulin binds to the receptors it stimulates the release of more insulin into the blood. The cilia consequently play an important role in the release and signal transduction of insulin.
The investigators also studied what happens when the cilia are defective. They found that in mice with few or defective cilia the insulin release was reduced and the animals had significantly elevated blood glucose levels.
"Ciliary dysfunction and defective glucose utilization are directly linked", says Per-Olof Berggren at the Rolf Luft Research Center for Diabetes and Endocrinology at Karolinska Institutet, principal investigator of the study. "Ciliopathies therefore have a potential function as models in the investigation of many still unknown mechanisms that underlie diabetes."
The research was supported by, among others, grants from the Swedish Research Council, the Novo Nordisk Foundation, the European Research Council, The Family Erling-Persson Foundation, the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, and the Stichting af Jochnick Foundation.
Publication: 'Ciliary dysfunction impairs pancreatic insulin secretion and promotes development of type 2 diabetes in rodents', Jantje M. Gerdes, Sonia Christou-Savina, Yan Xiong, Tilo Moede, Noah Moruzzi, Patrick Karlsson-Edlund, Barbara Leibiger, Ingo B. Leibiger, Claes-Göran Östenson, Philip L. Beales, and Per-Olof Berggren, Nature Communications, online 6 November 2014, doi: 10.1038/ncomms6308.
Contact the Press Office: ki.se/pressroom
Karolinska Institutet - a medical university: ki.se/english
Press Office | EurekAlert!
The birth of a new protein
20.10.2017 | University of Arizona
Building New Moss Factories
20.10.2017 | Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg im Breisgau
University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event
On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...
Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.
Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....
Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).
When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...
Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.
How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...
Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.
It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...
17.10.2017 | Event News
10.10.2017 | Event News
10.10.2017 | Event News
20.10.2017 | Information Technology
20.10.2017 | Materials Sciences
20.10.2017 | Interdisciplinary Research