Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Breakthrough in generating embryonic cells that are critical for human health

04.02.2016

UC Riverside-led study reports a fast, robust model for developing neural crest cells

Neural crest cells arise early in the development of vertebrates, migrate extensively through the embryo, and differentiate to give rise to a wide array of diverse derivatives. Their contributions include a large proportion of our peripheral nerves, the melanocytes that provide skin color and protection from damaging UV light, as well as many different cell types in our face, including muscle, bone, cartilage and tooth-forming cells.


The image shows induced human neural crest cells. Human embryonic stem cells display neural crest characteristic expression after only five days of culture under WNT induction. Transcription factors SOX10 and PAX7 are seen in green and red, respectively.

Credit: García-Castro lab, UC Riverside.

The proper functioning of these cells is critical for human development and health. When neural crest biology fails, various birth defects and illnesses - cleft lip/palate, Hirschsprung and Waardenburg syndromes, melanoma and neuroblastoma - result. A better study of these cells is crucial, therefore, to aid in clinical efforts to diagnose and treat such conditions.

But access to these embryonic cells in humans is very difficult. As an alternative, scientists turned to models based in embryonic stem cells.

While protocols to generate human neural crest cells from human embryonic stem cells have progressed since the first report 11 years ago, they still have considerable limitations for their use in basic and clinical research. This is because these protocols commonly use ingredients or components not well defined, such as blood serum which contains many unknown components of varying concentrations. Some protocols result in large clusters of cells, impairing the identification of specific molecules and their roles during neural crest cell formation. Furthermore, the fastest of these protocols takes 12 days (of very costly culture conditions) to convert human embryonic stem cells to neural crest cells. Oftentimes the protocols provide low yields, making the isolation of the desired neural crest cells a time-consuming and technically challenging process.

Work done by a research team led by an associate professor of biomedical sciences in the School of Medicine at the University of California, Riverside now addresses these problems by providing a robust, fast, simple and trackable method to generate neural crest cells. The proposed method can facilitate research in basic sciences and clinical applications alike.

"Our study provides a superb model to generate neural crest cells in just five days starting from human embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent cells, using a simple and well-defined media with all ingredients known and accounted for," said Martín I. García-Castro, whose lab led the study published in the Feb. 1 issue of the journal Development. "Our cost-effective, efficient and fast protocol allows a better analysis of the relevant signals and molecules involved in the formation of these cells. Our results suggest that human neural crest cells can arise independently from - and prior to - the formation of mesoderm and neural ectoderm derivatives, both of which had been thought to be critical for neural crest formation."

The mesoderm is the middle layer of the embryo in early development. It lies between the endoderm and the ectoderm, with the latter being the outermost layer. García-Castro's previous work on birds already challenged the dogma suggesting that neural crest cells form without mesodermal or neural contribution. Unpublished results from his lab have also confirmed the same using rabbit embryos as a mammalian model.

With regard to identifying specific molecules and their roles during neural crest cell formation, García-Castro's new work demonstrates the critical role played by a molecule known as WNT and highlights contributions from protein families called FGFs and BMPs.

Briefly, WNT proteins are signaling molecules that regulate cell-to-cell interactions during development and adult tissue homeostasis. The FGF protein family controls a wide range of biological functions. BMPs induce the formation of bone and cartilage and form tissues throughout the body.

"Our work provides strong evidence of the critical and initiating role of WNT signals in neural crest cell formation, with later contributions by FGF and BMP pathways," he said.

García-Castro emphasized that the proper function of neural crest cells is essential for human development and health.

"The study of these cells is essential to improve clinical efforts to diagnose, manage, and perhaps prevent diseases and conditions linked to them, and our lab has already launched efforts towards facial clefts - lip and or palate - and melanoma, and we hope to make substantial progress in both areas thanks to this novel protocol," he said.

###

The study was supported by funding from the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research of the National Institutes of Health as well as Connecticut Innovations, a funding source for companies in Connecticut.

García-Castro came to UC Riverside in November 2014. His coauthors on the research paper are Alan W. Leung (first author of the research paper, currently at Yale University, Conn.) and Barbara Murdoch (currently at Eastern Connecticut State University), both of whom are former members in his lab; and Ahmed F. Salem, Maneeshi S. Prasad, and Gustavo A. Gomez at UC Riverside.

The University of California, Riverside (http://www.ucr.edu) is a doctoral research university, a living laboratory for groundbreaking exploration of issues critical to Inland Southern California, the state and communities around the world. Reflecting California's diverse culture, UCR's enrollment has exceeded 21,000 students. The campus opened a medical school in 2013 and has reached the heart of the Coachella Valley by way of the UCR Palm Desert Center. The campus has an annual statewide economic impact of more than $1 billion. A broadcast studio with fiber cable to the AT&T Hollywood hub is available for live or taped interviews. UCR also has ISDN for radio interviews. To learn more, call (951) UCR-NEWS.

Media Contact

Iqbal Pittalwala
iqbal@ucr.edu
951-827-6050

 @UCRiverside

http://www.ucr.edu 

Iqbal Pittalwala | EurekAlert!

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Bacteria as pacemaker for the intestine
22.11.2017 | Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel

nachricht Researchers identify how bacterium survives in oxygen-poor environments
22.11.2017 | Columbia University

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Nanoparticles help with malaria diagnosis – new rapid test in development

The WHO reports an estimated 429,000 malaria deaths each year. The disease mostly affects tropical and subtropical regions and in particular the African continent. The Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC teamed up with the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME and the Institute of Tropical Medicine at the University of Tübingen for a new test method to detect malaria parasites in blood. The idea of the research project “NanoFRET” is to develop a highly sensitive and reliable rapid diagnostic test so that patient treatment can begin as early as possible.

Malaria is caused by parasites transmitted by mosquito bite. The most dangerous form of malaria is malaria tropica. Left untreated, it is fatal in most cases....

Im Focus: A “cosmic snake” reveals the structure of remote galaxies

The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.

Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...

Im Focus: Visual intelligence is not the same as IQ

Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.

That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...

Im Focus: Novel Nano-CT device creates high-resolution 3D-X-rays of tiny velvet worm legs

Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.

During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....

Im Focus: Researchers Develop Data Bus for Quantum Computer

The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.

Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Ecology Across Borders: International conference brings together 1,500 ecologists

15.11.2017 | Event News

Road into laboratory: Users discuss biaxial fatigue-testing for car and truck wheel

15.11.2017 | Event News

#Berlin5GWeek: The right network for Industry 4.0

30.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Corporate coworking as a driver of innovation

22.11.2017 | Business and Finance

PPPL scientists deliver new high-resolution diagnostic to national laser facility

22.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Quantum optics allows us to abandon expensive lasers in spectroscopy

22.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>