Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:


Activated Neurons Produce Protective Protein against Neurodegenerative Conditions


Heidelberg researchers discover central mechanism and identify key neuroprotective molecule

Activated neurons produce a protein that protects against nerve cell death. Prof. Dr. Hilmar Bading and his group at Heidelberg University’s Interdisciplinary Center for Neurosciences have found out how this effect comes about and defined a crucial player.

“We already knew that brain activity promotes neuroprotection,” Prof. Bading says. “Now we have discovered a central mechanism for this process and a key molecule produced by the body to develop a neuroprotective shield.” These results have been published in “Cell Reports”.

When nerve cells die, e.g. as a result of a stroke, Alzheimer’s disease or through age-related processes, the result may be considerable impairments of memory. Earlier studies led by Prof. Bading have shown that brain activity counteracts the death of nerve cells. The NMDA receptor plays a major role at the molecular level.

This type of receptor is a molecule set in motion by biochemical neurotransmitters. Due to neuronal activity, the NMDA receptor causes calcium to enter the cell. The calcium signal is spreading within the cell, invades the cell nucleus and switches on a genetic protection programme. Prof. Bading’s group identified this nuclear calcium-induced gene programme a few years ago. “However, it was not clear to us how it leads to a protective shield,” Hilmar Bading explains.

The scientists have now discovered the explanation for this – again by studying NMDA receptors. If these receptors are not located at the neuronal junctions, i.e. the synapses, they do not contribute to the protection of cells. On the contrary, they severely damage nerve cells and cause them to die.

“Life and death are only a few thousandths of a millimetre away from one another. Outside the synapse the NMDA receptor is no longer Dr. Jekyll, it becomes Mr. Hyde,” Hilmar Bading comments. The current research results show that toxic extrasynaptic NMDA receptors are suppressed through brain activity. The Heidelberg research team has identified activin A as the protein activating this process.

Activin A plays an important role e.g. in the menstruation cycle and in healing wounds. It is produced in the nervous system thanks to neuronal activity. This leads to a reduction in extrasynaptic NMDA receptors and builds up a protective shield, according to Prof. Bading.

Activin A also mediates the well-known protective properties of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a signalling molecule that protects existing neurons and synapses, and helps developing new ones. “Activin A can therefore be regarded as a crucial activator of a common neuroprotective mechanism in the brain.”

The discoveries made by the Heidelberg neurobiologists open up new prospects for treating degenerative diseases of the nervous system. In their study they showed that activin A in mice was able to significantly reduce brain damage after a stroke.

“Our research results also indicate that activin A may possibly be used to treat Alzheimer’s disease or Huntington’s disease. The characteristic degeneration of nerve cells associated with these two diseases seems to be due to an increased activity of toxic extrasynaptic NMDA receptors,” says Prof. Bading. “In everyday terms the new findings mean: An active brain produces activin A thereby protecting itself from neurodegeneration.”

Original publication:
D. Lau, C. P. Bengtson, B. Buchthal and H. Bading: BDNF Reduces Toxic Extrasynaptic NMDA Receptor Signaling via Synaptic NMDA Receptors and Nuclear Calcium-induced Transcription of inhba/Activin A. Cell Reports (2015), doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2015.07.038

Prof. Dr. Hilmar Bading
Interdisciplinary Center for Neurosciences
Phone +49 6221 54-8218

Communications and Marketing
Press Office, phone: +49 6221 54-2311

Weitere Informationen:

Marietta Fuhrmann-Koch | idw - Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht First time-lapse footage of cell activity during limb regeneration
25.10.2016 | eLife

nachricht Phenotype at the push of a button
25.10.2016 | Institut für Pflanzenbiochemie

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Etching Microstructures with Lasers

Ultrafast lasers have introduced new possibilities in engraving ultrafine structures, and scientists are now also investigating how to use them to etch microstructures into thin glass. There are possible applications in analytics (lab on a chip) and especially in electronics and the consumer sector, where great interest has been shown.

This new method was born of a surprising phenomenon: irradiating glass in a particular way with an ultrafast laser has the effect of making the glass up to a...

Im Focus: Light-driven atomic rotations excite magnetic waves

Terahertz excitation of selected crystal vibrations leads to an effective magnetic field that drives coherent spin motion

Controlling functional properties by light is one of the grand goals in modern condensed matter physics and materials science. A new study now demonstrates how...

Im Focus: New 3-D wiring technique brings scalable quantum computers closer to reality

Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo led the development of a new extensible wiring technique capable of controlling superconducting quantum bits, representing a significant step towards to the realization of a scalable quantum computer.

"The quantum socket is a wiring method that uses three-dimensional wires based on spring-loaded pins to address individual qubits," said Jeremy Béjanin, a PhD...

Im Focus: Scientists develop a semiconductor nanocomposite material that moves in response to light

In a paper in Scientific Reports, a research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute describes a novel light-activated phenomenon that could become the basis for applications as diverse as microscopic robotic grippers and more efficient solar cells.

A research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) has developed a revolutionary, light-activated semiconductor nanocomposite material that can be used...

Im Focus: Diamonds aren't forever: Sandia, Harvard team create first quantum computer bridge

By forcefully embedding two silicon atoms in a diamond matrix, Sandia researchers have demonstrated for the first time on a single chip all the components needed to create a quantum bridge to link quantum computers together.

"People have already built small quantum computers," says Sandia researcher Ryan Camacho. "Maybe the first useful one won't be a single giant quantum computer...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>



Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

Agricultural Trade Developments and Potentials in Central Asia and the South Caucasus

14.10.2016 | Event News

World Health Summit – Day Three: A Call to Action

12.10.2016 | Event News

Latest News

Greater Range and Longer Lifetime

26.10.2016 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VDI presents International Bionic Award of the Schauenburg Foundation

26.10.2016 | Awards Funding

3-D-printed magnets

26.10.2016 | Power and Electrical Engineering

More VideoLinks >>>