Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

A Peek into the “Birthing Room” of Ribosomes

15.07.2016

Scaffolding and specialised workers help with the delivery – Heidelberg biochemists gain new insights into biogenesis

A type of scaffolding on which specialised workers ply their trade helps in the manufacturing process of the two subunits from which the ribosome – the protein factory of the cell – originates. Biochemists at Heidelberg University discovered it after succeeding in getting a peek into the ribosomal “birthing room”.


Model of the small ribosomal subunit shown at its “birth”

Figure: BZH/Jochen Baßler

While studying baker's yeast as the model organism, the researchers, in collaboration with colleagues from Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, discovered a shell that envelops the smaller of the two subunits during the ribosome's formation.

The results of the research could contribute to a greater understanding of ribosomopathies – abnormalities caused by impaired ribosome biogenesis. Because several medications also act on the biogenesis of ribosomes, the investigators hope to apply their findings to cancer research. The results of the research were published in the journal “Cell”.

The research team of Prof. Dr Ed Hurt of the Heidelberg University Biochemistry Center had already stumbled on the earliest known ribosomal precursor, the 90S pre-ribosome, 15 years ago. To find out the function of this giant precursor particle in ribosome biogenesis, Markus Kornprobst isolated the pre-ribosomes of baker's yeast in order to analyse their structure.

“In the process, we discovered that the precursor bore a large shell-like module that the cell recycled after work was finished,” explains Markus Kornprobst of Prof. Hurt's team. “The relatively compact phenotype of the 90S pre-ribosome gave us the idea that this shell, in combination with other factors, encloses the smaller of the two ribosomal subunits during biogenesis to allow seamless assembly of the particle in a protected environment.” Using cryo-electron microscopy, they were able to confirm their suspicion in collaboration with the Munich team of Prof. Dr. Roland Beckmann.

Another member of Dr. Hurt's lab, Dr Nikola Kellner, isolated the 90S pre-ribosome from a heat-loving fungus. “They are more stable and hence better suited to further analyses than 90S pre-ribosomes from other organisms,” Nikola Kellner explains.

Finally, with the aid of cryo-electron microscopy, the structure of this thermostable 90S pre-ribosome was detectable down to a resolution of less than a nanometre. “The 90S factors actually form a gigantic cohesive network that surrounds the small developing subunit like a scaffold, such as on a high-rise, where specialized workers perform their jobs using various tools,” explains Ed Hurt.

Original publication:
M. Kornprobst, M. Turk, N. Kellner, et al.: Architecture of the 90S Pre-ribosome: A Structural View on the Birth of the Eukaryotic Ribosome. Cell 166 (July 14, 2016), doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2016.06.014

Caption:
Model of the small ribosomal subunit shown at its “birth”. Within the 90S pre-ribosome – the earliest known intermediate in ribosome biogenesis – the nascent small ribosomal subunit is encapsulated by a giant network of biogenesis factors (“workers”). In analogy, the image illustrates how a construction scaffold is decorated with workers, who use tools for hammering, trimming, and burnishing, in order to sculpture the small subunit (shown yellow and blue) in its centre.
Figure: BZH/Jochen Baßler

Contact:
Prof. Dr. Ed Hurt
Heidelberg University Biochemistry Center
Phone +49 6221 54-4781, -4173
ed.hurt@bzh.uni-heidelberg.de

Communications and Marketing
Press Office, phone +49 6221 54-2311
presse@rektorat.uni-heidelberg.de

Weitere Informationen:

http://www.uni-heidelberg.de/zentral/bzh/hurt
http://www.bzh.uni-heidelberg.de

Marietta Fuhrmann-Koch | idw - Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Bacteria as pacemaker for the intestine
22.11.2017 | Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel

nachricht Researchers identify how bacterium survives in oxygen-poor environments
22.11.2017 | Columbia University

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Nanoparticles help with malaria diagnosis – new rapid test in development

The WHO reports an estimated 429,000 malaria deaths each year. The disease mostly affects tropical and subtropical regions and in particular the African continent. The Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC teamed up with the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME and the Institute of Tropical Medicine at the University of Tübingen for a new test method to detect malaria parasites in blood. The idea of the research project “NanoFRET” is to develop a highly sensitive and reliable rapid diagnostic test so that patient treatment can begin as early as possible.

Malaria is caused by parasites transmitted by mosquito bite. The most dangerous form of malaria is malaria tropica. Left untreated, it is fatal in most cases....

Im Focus: A “cosmic snake” reveals the structure of remote galaxies

The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.

Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...

Im Focus: Visual intelligence is not the same as IQ

Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.

That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...

Im Focus: Novel Nano-CT device creates high-resolution 3D-X-rays of tiny velvet worm legs

Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.

During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....

Im Focus: Researchers Develop Data Bus for Quantum Computer

The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.

Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Ecology Across Borders: International conference brings together 1,500 ecologists

15.11.2017 | Event News

Road into laboratory: Users discuss biaxial fatigue-testing for car and truck wheel

15.11.2017 | Event News

#Berlin5GWeek: The right network for Industry 4.0

30.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Corporate coworking as a driver of innovation

22.11.2017 | Business and Finance

PPPL scientists deliver new high-resolution diagnostic to national laser facility

22.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Quantum optics allows us to abandon expensive lasers in spectroscopy

22.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>