Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:


A childhood dilemma: Growth or Play


Primates that play, grow slower but benefit later in life

Frolicking, wrestling, climbing, jumping – Playing is a lot of fun and promotes development but is also very strenuous. Behavioral biologists therefore suspect that animals only play intensively if they have surplus energy at their disposal or if playing brings about vital advantages.

Wild Assamese macaque infants inspecting a knee at the Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary in northeastern Thailand.

Photo: Andreas Berghänel

Scientists led by Julia Ostner from the University of Göttingen and the German Primate Center - Leibniz Institute for Primate Research investigated this in young Assamese macaques in their natural habitat in Thailand. They found that those animals that play a lot grow more slowly than their less active conspecifics. However, during play they learn motoric skills that are vital for fight and flight. Thus, it depends on the respective conditions whether faster growth or more play is the right choice (Science Advances, 2015).

Active play promotes motoric development but at the same time it uses a lot of energy, which is required for an unimpeded growth process. Evolutionary biologists examining play behavior in animals are faced with a Darwinian paradox: Most definitions of play behavior include that the behavior does not serve any immediate purpose and is not assignable to an obvious function.

Any behavior that generates costs but no benefits should disappear through natural selection. The prevalence of play behavior in the animal kingdom was therefore explained by the notion that it produces indirect or long-term benefits but occurs only when the animals have sufficient energy available: Playing promotes the motoric, cognitive and social development and only takes place when the animals are healthy, well fed and safe. "Our findings on Assamese macaques contradict this notion", says Andreas Berghänel, first author of the published study.

Young Assamese macaques, who spend a lot of time wrestling and romping in the jungles of Thailand, grow more slowly than their less playful conspecifics. "Thus, unconstrained development does not appear to be more important than play, young monkeys overexert themselves so much by playing that they cannot keep up with the growth process,” says Julia Ostner, head of the study.

The more playful monkeys thereby risk maturing later and having fewer offspring. However, there is also a clear benefit: The more time an infant spent playing intensely before acquiring a new motoric skill, the earlier in life it masters this motoric task. A faster motoric development is very beneficial if one is involved in fights or must flee from enemies. "Thus, my recommendation to parents: send your kids out to play and feed them a good dinner afterwards to make them grow tall and smart", says Julia Ostner.

Since 2014 Julia Ostner is Professor and Head of Department at the Johann-Friedrich-Blumenbach Institute for Zoology and Anthropology at the University of Göttingen. In addition, she heads the Research Group Social Evolution in Primates at the German Primate Center - Leibniz Institute for Primate Research since 2015. Julia Ostner studies the behavior of Assamese macaques at a research station in Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary in Thailand. Since 2014, the research station is financed by the German Primate Center.

Original Publication

Andreas Berghänel, Oliver Schülke, Julia Ostner (2015): Locomotor play drives motor skill acquisition at the expense of growth: a life history trade-off. Science Advances.


Prof. Dr. Julia Ostner
Behavioral Ecology, Johann-Friedrich-Blumenbach Institute for Zoology and Anthropology at the University of Göttingen and Research Group Social Evolution in Primates, German Primate Center
Phone: +49 551 39-33925

Dr. Sylvia Siersleben (PR)
Phone: +49 551 3851-163

Printable pictures and videos are available in our media database. We kindly request a specimen copy in case of publication.

The German Primate Center (DPZ) – Leibniz Institute for Primate Research conducts biological and biomedical research on and with primates in the fields of infection research, neuroscience and primate biology. The DPZ maintains three field stations in the tropics and is the reference and service center for all aspects of primate research. The DPZ is one of 89 research and infrastructure facilities of the Leibniz Association.

Weitere Informationen: - Website of the German Primate Center - Media database - Research group Social Evolution in Primates - Department of Behavioral Ecology, University of Göttingen

Dr. Susanne Diederich | idw - Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Further reports about: Behavioral Ecology Evolution ecology macaques monkeys

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Signaling Pathways to the Nucleus
19.03.2018 | Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg im Breisgau

nachricht In monogamous species, a compatible partner is more important than an ornamented one
19.03.2018 | Max-Planck-Institut für Ornithologie

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Tiny implants for cells are functional in vivo

For the first time, an interdisciplinary team from the University of Basel has succeeded in integrating artificial organelles into the cells of live zebrafish embryos. This innovative approach using artificial organelles as cellular implants offers new potential in treating a range of diseases, as the authors report in an article published in Nature Communications.

In the cells of higher organisms, organelles such as the nucleus or mitochondria perform a range of complex functions necessary for life. In the networks of...

Im Focus: Locomotion control with photopigments

Researchers from Göttingen University discover additional function of opsins

Animal photoreceptors capture light with photopigments. Researchers from the University of Göttingen have now discovered that these photopigments fulfill an...

Im Focus: Surveying the Arctic: Tracking down carbon particles

Researchers embark on aerial campaign over Northeast Greenland

On 15 March, the AWI research aeroplane Polar 5 will depart for Greenland. Concentrating on the furthest northeast region of the island, an international team...

Im Focus: Unique Insights into the Antarctic Ice Shelf System

Data collected on ocean-ice interactions in the little-researched regions of the far south

The world’s second-largest ice shelf was the destination for a Polarstern expedition that ended in Punta Arenas, Chile on 14th March 2018. Oceanographers from...

Im Focus: ILA 2018: Laser alternative to hexavalent chromium coating

At the 2018 ILA Berlin Air Show from April 25–29, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT is showcasing extreme high-speed Laser Material Deposition (EHLA): A video documents how for metal components that are highly loaded, EHLA has already proved itself as an alternative to hard chrome plating, which is now allowed only under special conditions.

When the EU restricted the use of hexavalent chromium compounds to special applications requiring authorization, the move prompted a rethink in the surface...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>



Industry & Economy
Event News

Virtual reality conference comes to Reutlingen

19.03.2018 | Event News

Ultrafast Wireless and Chip Design at the DATE Conference in Dresden

16.03.2018 | Event News

International Tinnitus Conference of the Tinnitus Research Initiative in Regensburg

13.03.2018 | Event News

Latest News

Virtual reality conference comes to Reutlingen

19.03.2018 | Event News

TIB’s Visual Analytics Research Group to develop methods for person detection and visualisation

19.03.2018 | Information Technology

Tiny implants for cells are functional in vivo

19.03.2018 | Interdisciplinary Research

Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>