Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Robot Arm Improves Performance of Brain-Controlled Device

15.12.2010
The performance of a brain-machine interface designed to help paralyzed subjects move objects with their thoughts is improved with the addition of a robotic arm providing sensory feedback, a new study from the University of Chicago finds.

Devices that translate brain activity into the movement of a computer cursor or an external robotic arm have already proven successful in humans. But in these early systems, vision was the only tool a subject could use to help control the motion.

Adding a robot arm that provided kinesthetic information about movement and position in space improved the performance of monkeys using a brain-machine interface in a study published today in The Journal of Neuroscience.

Incorporating this sense may improve the design of "wearable robots" to help patients with spinal cord injuries, researchers said.

"A lot of patients that are motor-disabled might have partial sensory feedback," said Nicholas Hatsopoulos, PhD, Associate Professor and Chair of Computational Neuroscience at the University of Chicago. "That got us thinking that maybe we could use this natural form of feedback with wearable robots to provide that kind of feedback."

In the experiments, monkeys controlled a cursor without actively moving their arm via a device that translated activity in the primary motor cortex of their brain into cursor motion. While wearing a sleeve-like robotic exoskeleton that moved their arm in tandem with the cursor, the monkey's control of the cursor improved, hitting targets faster and via straighter paths than without the exoskeleton.

“We saw a 40 percent improvement in cursor control when the robotic exoskeleton passively moved the monkeys’ arm," Hatsopoulos said. "This could be quite significant for daily activities being performed by a paralyzed patient that was equipped with such a system."

When a person moves their arm or hand, they use sensory feedback called proprioception to control that motion. For example, if one reaches out to grab a coffee mug, sensory neurons in the arm and hand send information back to the brain about where one's limbs are positioned and moving. Proprioception tells a person where their arm is positioned, even if their eyes are closed.

But in patients with conditions where sensory neurons die out, executing basic motor tasks such as buttoning a shirt or even walking becomes exceptionally difficult. Paraplegic subjects in the early clinical trials of brain-machine interfaces faced similar difficulty in attempting to move a computer cursor or robot arm using only visual cues. Those troubles helped researchers realize the importance of proprioception feedback, Hatsopoulos said.

"In the early days when we were doing this, we didn’t even consider sensory feedback as an important component of the system," Hatsopoulos said. "We really thought it was just one-way: signals were coming from the brain, and then out to control the limb. It’s only more recently that the community has really realized that there is this loop with feedback coming back."

Reflecting this loop, the researchers on the new study also observed changes in the brain activity recorded from the monkeys when sensory feedback was added to the set-up. With proprioception feedback, the information in the cell firing patterns of the primary motor cortex contained more information than in trials with only visual feedback, Hatsopoulos said, reflecting an improved signal-to-noise ratio.

The improvement seen from adding proprioception feedback may inform the next generation of brain-machine interface devices, Hatsopoulos said. Already, scientists are developing different types of "wearable robots" to augment a person's natural abilities. Combining a decoder of cortical activity with a robotic exoskeleton for the arm or hand can serve a dual purpose: allowing a paralyzed subject to move the limb, while also providing sensory feedback.

To benefit from this solution, a paralyzed patient must have retained some residual sensory information from the limbs despite the loss of motor function – a common occurrence, Hatsopoulos said, particularly in patients with ALS, locked-in syndrome, or incomplete spinal cord injury. For patients without both motor and sensory function, direct stimulation of sensory cortex may be able to simulate the sensation of limb movement. Further research in that direction is currently underway, Hatsopoulos said.

"I think all the components are there; there’s nothing here that’s holding us back conceptually," Hatsopoulos said. "I think using these wearable robots and controlling them with the brain is, in my opinion, probably the most promising approach to take in helping paralyzed individuals regain the ability to move."

The paper, "Incorporating feedback from multiple sensory modalities enhances brain-machine interface control," appears in the Dec. 15 issue of The Journal of Neuroscience. Authors on the paper are Aaron J. Suminski, Dennis C. Tkach, and Hatsopoulos of the University of Chicago, and Andrew H. Fagg of the University of Oklahoma.

Funding for the research was provided by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and the Paralyzed Veterans of America Research Foundation.

Robert Mitchum | Newswise Science News
Further information:
http://www.uchospitals.edu

More articles from Interdisciplinary Research:

nachricht A new method for the 3-D printing of living tissues
16.08.2017 | University of Oxford

nachricht Bergamotene - alluring and lethal for Manduca sexta
21.04.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für chemische Ökologie

All articles from Interdisciplinary Research >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Ultrafast snapshots of relaxing electrons in solids

Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!

When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...

Im Focus: Quantum Sensors Decipher Magnetic Ordering in a New Semiconducting Material

For the first time, physicists have successfully imaged spiral magnetic ordering in a multiferroic material. These materials are considered highly promising candidates for future data storage media. The researchers were able to prove their findings using unique quantum sensors that were developed at Basel University and that can analyze electromagnetic fields on the nanometer scale. The results – obtained by scientists from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics, the Swiss Nanoscience Institute, the University of Montpellier and several laboratories from University Paris-Saclay – were recently published in the journal Nature.

Multiferroics are materials that simultaneously react to electric and magnetic fields. These two properties are rarely found together, and their combined...

Im Focus: Fast, convenient & standardized: New lab innovation for automated tissue engineering & drug

MBM ScienceBridge GmbH successfully negotiated a license agreement between University Medical Center Göttingen (UMG) and the biotech company Tissue Systems Holding GmbH about commercial use of a multi-well tissue plate for automated and reliable tissue engineering & drug testing.

MBM ScienceBridge GmbH successfully negotiated a license agreement between University Medical Center Göttingen (UMG) and the biotech company Tissue Systems...

Im Focus: Silencing bacteria

HZI researchers pave the way for new agents that render hospital pathogens mute

Pathogenic bacteria are becoming resistant to common antibiotics to an ever increasing degree. One of the most difficult germs is Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a...

Im Focus: Artificial Enzymes for Hydrogen Conversion

Scientists from the MPI for Chemical Energy Conversion report in the first issue of the new journal JOULE.

Cell Press has just released the first issue of Joule, a new journal dedicated to sustainable energy research. In this issue James Birrell, Olaf Rüdiger,...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

“Lasers in Composites Symposium” in Aachen – from Science to Application

19.09.2017 | Event News

I-ESA 2018 – Call for Papers

12.09.2017 | Event News

EMBO at Basel Life, a new conference on current and emerging life science research

06.09.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

“Lasers in Composites Symposium” in Aachen – from Science to Application

19.09.2017 | Event News

New quantum phenomena in graphene superlattices

19.09.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

A simple additive to improve film quality

19.09.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>