Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Using sphere packing models to explain the structure of forests

26.11.2015

Explaining the complex structure of tropical forests is one of the great challenges in ecology. An issue of special interest is the distribution of different sizes of trees, something which is of particular relevance for biomass estimates. Modellers from the UFZ, working together with research partners, has now developed a new method which can be used to explain the tree size distribution in natural forests. To do so, the scientists use principles from stochastic geometry, as they have reported in a contribution to the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS, Early Edition).

For over one hundred years, the distribution of different sizes of trees in forests has been one of the core attributes recorded by foresters and ecologists world-wide, as it can be used to derive many other structural features, such as biomass and productivity. "We wanted to explain this important pattern", said Dr. Franziska Taubert.


Image showing tightly packed tree crowns in a natural tropical forest, for investigating the forest's structure. Tree crowns of different sizes are shown as spheres.

André Künzelmann/UFZ

Working with her UFZ colleagues Dr. Thorsten Wiegand and Prof. Andreas Huth, and other research partners in the Leipzig University of Applied Sciences (HTWK) and the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), they have applied the theory of stochastic sphere packing, which is usually used in physics or chemistry. This theory describes how spheres can be placed in an available space.

To apply the theory, the scientists randomly distributed tree crowns of different sizes in forest areas. These tree crowns were not permitted to overlap, - just like packing apples into a box. The distribution of the trees that have been successfully placed in the packing process was then used to determine the tree size distribution.

"Many forest models are based on a dynamic approach: they take into account processes such as growth, mortality, regeneration and competition between trees for light, water and soil nutrients", said Taubert. "These models are complex and data-hungry", added Thorsten Wiegand," so we decided to take a radically different approach, which is fundamentally simpler and only based on spatial structures".

This model approach proved its effectiveness by enabling observed forest structures, especially the tree size distribution, to be reproduced accurately. The rules of stochastic geometry are thereby enriched by tree geometry relationships, and the resulting tree packing system is compared to inventory data from tropical forests in Panama and Sri Lanka.

Although one might imagine that a tropical forest is very tightly packed, the scientists came to a surprising conclusion: the packing density of the tree crowns, which averages 15 to 20%, is astonishingly low. "In particular, the upper and lower canopy levels are less tightly packed with tree crowns", said Taubert. High packing densities of around 60%, which are also possible according to stochastic geometry, only occur at tree heights between 25 and 40 meters.

The findings concerning the distribution of tree crowns are important, because they can be used to draw conclusions about, for example, the carbon content or productivity of a forest. Using this modelling approach, the researchers were also able to show that the decisive factor in shaping the tree size distribution is competition for space. "In classical forest models", said Andreas Huth, "the trees instead compete for light, or water and nutrients".

The theory opens up several new perspectives. The team plans to assess how the model can be applied to natural forests in the temperate and boreal zone. They believe that the model can be used to identify disturbed forests. "That is of special interest because it will enable us to develop a disturbance index", said Taubert, “and to better interpret remote sensing observations by using the structure of natural forests as a reference”. Another benefit of the new theory is that this simple forest packing model takes much less effort than classical forest models. The new approach is an important step toward identifying a minimal set of processes responsible for generating the spatial structure of natural forests.

Publication:
Franziska Taubert, Markus Wilhelm Jahn, Hans-Jürgen Dobner, Thorsten Wiegand and Andreas Huth: "The structure of tropical forests and sphere packings". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS). http://www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1513417112

Institutions involved:
Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Leipzig University of Applied Sciences (HTWK), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, University of Osnabrück.
The researchers thank the Advanced Grant of the European Research Council (ERC) for their support.

Further information
Dr. Franziska Taubert
UFZ Department of Ecological Modelling
Phone: +49 341 235-1896
franziska.taubert@ufz.de

Prof. Dr. Andreas Huth
Head of UFZ Department of Ecological Modelling
Phone: +49 341 235-1719
andreas.huth@ufz.de

Weitere Informationen:

http://www.ufz.de/index.php?en=36792

Susanne Hufe | Helmholtz-Zentrum für Umweltforschung - UFZ

More articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation:

nachricht Upcycling 'fast fashion' to reduce waste and pollution
03.04.2017 | American Chemical Society

nachricht Litter is present throughout the world’s oceans: 1,220 species affected
27.03.2017 | Alfred-Wegener-Institut, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung

All articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Making lightweight construction suitable for series production

More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.

Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...

Im Focus: Wonder material? Novel nanotube structure strengthens thin films for flexible electronics

Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.

"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...

Im Focus: Deep inside Galaxy M87

The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.

Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...

Im Focus: A Quantum Low Pass for Photons

Physicists in Garching observe novel quantum effect that limits the number of emitted photons.

The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...

Im Focus: Microprocessors based on a layer of just three atoms

Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.

Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Fighting drug resistant tuberculosis – InfectoGnostics meets MYCO-NET² partners in Peru

28.04.2017 | Event News

Expert meeting “Health Business Connect” will connect international medical technology companies

20.04.2017 | Event News

Wenn der Computer das Gehirn austrickst

18.04.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Wireless power can drive tiny electronic devices in the GI tract

28.04.2017 | Medical Engineering

Ice cave in Transylvania yields window into region's past

28.04.2017 | Earth Sciences

Nose2Brain – Better Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis

28.04.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>