Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Plastic parts for internal combustion engines

01.04.2015

Efforts to produce lighter vehicles necessarily include engine parts, such as the cylinder casing, which could shed up to 20 percent of its weight if it were made of fiber-reinforced plastic rather than aluminum – without added costs. Such injection-molded parts are even suitable for mass production.

It’s self-evident that cars must become lighter in order to reduce fuel consumption. For most car designers this principally means body parts, but the powertrain system, which includes the engine, also accounts for a large proportion of the vehicle’s weight.


Demonstration model of the experimental engine with lightweight cylinder casing to be presented at the Hannover Messe.

© Fraunhofer ICT

Until now, carmakers have relied on aluminum to reduce the weight of engine components such as the cylinder block. In the future, car manufacturers will be able to achieve further weight savings by designing cylinder blocks in which certain parts are made of fiber-reinforced plastics.

An experimental engine developed by the Fraunhofer project group for new drive systems (NAS), which forms part of the Fraunhofer Institute for Chemical Technology ICT, in collaboration with SBHPP, the high-performance plastics business unit of Sumitomo Bakelite Co. Ltd., Japan, demonstrates this principle.

“We used a fiber-reinforced composite material to build a cylinder casing for a one-cylinder research engine,” reports Dr. Lars-Fredrik Berg, who is the project leader and manager of the research area Lightweight Powertrain Design at the Fraunhofer Project Group for new drive systems.

“The cylinder casing weighs around 20 percent less than the equivalent aluminum component, and costs the same.” It seems an obvious solution, but getting there involved numerous technical challenges, because the materials used have to be able to withstand extreme temperatures, high pressure and vibrations without suffering damage.

That plastics possessed these qualities was recognized back in the 1980s, but at that time it was only possible to produce this types of parts in a small volume and by investing a lot of effort in the form of manual labour – a no-go for the automotive industry, in which cylinder blocks are mass-produced in millions of units.

So what did the researchers do to ensure that their engine would be sufficiently robust? “First we looked at the engine design and identified the areas subject to high thermal and mechanical loads. Here we use metal inserts to strengthen their wear resistance,” explains Berg. One example is the cylinder liner, inside which the piston moves up and down millions of times during the life of the vehicle. The researchers also modified the geometry of these parts to ensure that the plastic is exposed to as little heat as possible.

Glass-fiber-reinforced phenolic resin

The characteristics of the plastic material also play an important role. It needs to be sufficiently hard and rigid, and resistant to oil, gasoline and glycol in the cooling water. It must also demonstrate good adherence to the metal inserts and not have a higher thermal expansion coefficient than the metal – otherwise the inserts would separate from the substrate.

Berg’s team uses a glass-fiber-reinforced phenolic composite developed by SBHPP, which fulfills all of these requirements and comprises 55 percent fibers and 45 percent resin. A lighter-weight but more expensive alternative is to use a carbon-fiber-reinforced composite – the choice depends on whether the carmaker wishes to optimize the engine in terms of costs or in terms of weight.

The researchers produce these components from granulated thermoset plastics using an injection molding process. The melted composite material, in which the glass fibers are already mixed with the resin, hardens in the mold into which it was injected.

The scientists analyzed the process using computer simulations to determine the best method of injecting the material in order to optimize the performance of the finished product. The process is compatible with mass production scenarios and the manufacturing costs are significantly lower than those for aluminum engine parts, not least because it eliminates numerous finishing operations.

A prototype of this engine will be presented at this year’s Hannover Messe, which takes place on April 13-17 (exhibit in Hall 2, Booth C16). Test runs of the new engine have been completed successfully. “We have proved that it is capable of the same performance as conventionally built engines,” says Berg.

Moreover, it promises to offer further advantages such as lower running noise as against engines relying exclusively on metal parts. Initial data also indicates that the amount of heat radiated to the environment is lower than that generated by aluminum-based engines. The scientists intend to take their research further by developing a multi-cylinder plastics-based engine, including the crankshaft bearings.

Dr. Stefan Tröster | Fraunhofer Research News
Further information:
http://www.fraunhofer.de/en/press/research-news/2015/april/plastic-parts-for-internal-combustion-engines.html

More articles from Machine Engineering:

nachricht Scientists from Hannover develop a novel lightweight production process
27.09.2017 | IPH - Institut für Integrierte Produktion Hannover gGmbH

nachricht PRESTO – Highly Dynamic Powerhouses
15.05.2017 | JULABO GmbH

All articles from Machine Engineering >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: A “cosmic snake” reveals the structure of remote galaxies

The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.

Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...

Im Focus: Visual intelligence is not the same as IQ

Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.

That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...

Im Focus: Novel Nano-CT device creates high-resolution 3D-X-rays of tiny velvet worm legs

Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.

During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....

Im Focus: Researchers Develop Data Bus for Quantum Computer

The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.

Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...

Im Focus: Wrinkles give heat a jolt in pillared graphene

Rice University researchers test 3-D carbon nanostructures' thermal transport abilities

Pillared graphene would transfer heat better if the theoretical material had a few asymmetric junctions that caused wrinkles, according to Rice University...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Ecology Across Borders: International conference brings together 1,500 ecologists

15.11.2017 | Event News

Road into laboratory: Users discuss biaxial fatigue-testing for car and truck wheel

15.11.2017 | Event News

#Berlin5GWeek: The right network for Industry 4.0

30.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

NASA detects solar flare pulses at Sun and Earth

17.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

NIST scientists discover how to switch liver cancer cell growth from 2-D to 3-D structures

17.11.2017 | Health and Medicine

The importance of biodiversity in forests could increase due to climate change

17.11.2017 | Studies and Analyses

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>