Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Germanium comes home to Purdue for semiconductor milestone

10.12.2014

A laboratory at Purdue University provided a critical part of the world's first transistor in 1947 – the purified germanium semiconductor – and now researchers here are on the forefront of a new germanium milestone.

The team has created the first modern germanium circuit – a complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) device – using germanium as the semiconductor instead of silicon.


This graphic depicts a new electronic device created at Purdue that uses germanium as the semiconductor instead of silicon. Germanium is one material being considered to replace silicon in future chips because it could enable the industry to make smaller transistors and more compact integrated circuits. (Purdue University image)

"Bell Labs created the first transistor, but the semiconductor crystal made of purified germanium was provided by Purdue physicists," said Peide "Peter" Ye, a Purdue professor of electrical and computer engineering.

Germanium was superseded by silicon as the semiconductor of choice for commercial CMOS technology. However, the industry will soon reach the limit as to how small silicon transistors can be made, threatening future advances. Germanium is one material being considered to replace silicon because it could enable the industry to make smaller transistors and more compact integrated circuits, Ye said.

Compared to silicon, germanium also is said to have a "higher mobility" for electrons and electron "holes," a trait that makes for ultra-fast circuits.

In new findings, Purdue researchers show how to use germanium to produce two types of transistors needed for CMOS electronic devices. The material had previously been limited to "P-type" transistors. The findings show how to use the material also to make "N-type" transistors. Because both types of transistors are needed for CMOS circuits, the findings point to possible applications for germanium in computers and electronics, he said.

Findings will be detailed in two papers being presented during the 2014 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting on Dec. 15-17 in San Francisco. One paper was authored by Ye and graduate students Heng Wu, Nathan Conrad and Wei Luo, the same authors of the second paper together with graduate students Mengwei Si, Jingyun Zhang and Hong Zhou.

The material has properties that make it difficult to create an N-type contact with low electrical resistance for good current flow. However, the germanium is doped, or impregnated with impurities that alter its properties. The areas containing the most impurities have the lowest resistance. The researchers showed how to etch away the top layer of germanium, exposing the most heavily doped portion, which provides a good contact.

The etching creates recessed channels, which serve as gates needed for CMOS transistors to switch on and off. Findings show the fundamental part of the circuit, called the inverter, is the best-performing non-silicon inverter demonstrated so far, Ye said.

The research, based at the Birck Nanotechnology Center in Purdue's Discovery Park, are funded in part by the Semiconductor Research Corp.

Writer: Emil Venere, 765-494-4709, venere@purdue.edu

Source: Peide Ye, 765-494-7611, yep@purdue.edu

Note to Journalists: Electronic copies of the research papers are available from Emil Venere, Purdue News Service, at 765-494-4709, venere@purdue.edu

ABSTRACT

First Experimental Demonstration of Ge CMOS Circuits

Heng Wu, Nathan Conrad, Wei Luo, and Peide D. Ye*

School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University

*Tel: 1-765-494-7611, Fax: 1-765-496-6443, Email: yep@purdue.edu

We report the first experimental demonstration of Ge CMOS circuits, based on a novel recessed channel and S/D technique. Aggressively scaled non-Si CMOS logic devices with channel lengths (Lch) from 500 to 20 nm, channel thicknesses (Tch) of 25 and 15 nm, EOTs of 4.5 and 3 nm and a small width ratio (Wn:Wp=1.2) are realized on a Ge-on-insulator (GeOI) substrate. The CMOS inverters have high voltage gain of up to 36 V/V, which is the best value among all of the non-Si CMOS results by the standard top-down approach. Scalability studies on Ge CMOS inverters down to 20 nm are carried out for the first time. NAND and NOR logic gates are also investigated.

Emil Venere | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.purdue.edu/newsroom/releases/2014/Q4/germanium-comes-home-to-purdue-for-semiconductor-milestone.html

More articles from Power and Electrical Engineering:

nachricht Researchers pave the way for ionotronic nanodevices
23.02.2017 | Aalto University

nachricht Microhotplates for a smart gas sensor
22.02.2017 | Toyohashi University of Technology

All articles from Power and Electrical Engineering >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

Im Focus: Three Magnetic States for Each Hole

Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".

Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Stingless bees have their nests protected by soldiers

24.02.2017 | Life Sciences

New risk factors for anxiety disorders

24.02.2017 | Life Sciences

MWC 2017: 5G Capital Berlin

24.02.2017 | Trade Fair News

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>