Vibrio outbreaks have sickened shellfish consumers in northeast
In a major breakthrough in shellfish management and disease prevention, researchers at the University of New Hampshire have discovered a new method to detect a bacterium that has contaminated New England oyster beds and sickened consumers who ate the contaminated shellfish. The new patent-pending detection method - which is available for immediate use to identify contaminated shellfish - is a significant advance in efforts to identify shellfish harboring disease-carrying strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus.
"Since 2012, the Northeast has been experiencing an ongoing outbreak caused by a non-native strain of V. parahaemolyticus that is endemic to the Pacific Northwest. A significant challenge for managing shellfish harvesting to prevent infections is that we were previously unable to tell the difference between this strain and harmless residents. The new detection platform will provide rapid, and more importantly, specific quantification of the invasive strain, we hope allowing more effective management of harvesting that will protect this important regional industry," said Cheryl Whistler, associate professor of molecular, cellular, and biomedical sciences.
The new detection method was developed by Whistler; Steve Jones, research associate professor of natural resources and the environment; and Vaughn Cooper, associate professor of molecular, cellular, and biomedical sciences. It was developed using genome sequencing and analysis. The research is presented in the forthcoming issue of the Journal of Clinical Microbiology in the article "Use of Whole Genome Phylogeny and Comparisons in the Development of a Multiplex-PCR Assay to Identify Sequence Type 36 Vibrio parahaemolyticus."
V. parahaemolyticus isthe most common bacterial infection acquired from seafood in the world. There are an estimated 35,000 cases each year in the United States. In recent years, there has been an increase in the incidence of shellfish contamination, which has caused costly recalls of shellfish and shellfish bed closures in Connecticut and Massachusetts. Some strains of the microbe cause disease and others do not.
Whistler said the new detection method is available for immediate use, and can benefit researchers and managers, food inspectors, wholesalers, and retailers. It could form the basis for a diagnostic test for widespread use in both environmental detection and clinical diagnosis. In addition to enabling the research community, the UNHInnovation office will be seeking a partner to license the patent-pending innovation for commercial applications.
"New ideas that create jobs and healthy communities are among the many advancements that have made the United States the leading economic power in the world. Much of this innovation takes place at top research universities like UNH. This patent and the research that led to it underscores the need for continued federal investments in scientific research that will allow the United States to remain an innovation leader," said Jan Nisbet, senior vice provost for research at UNH.
The new detection method identifies the Atlantic ST36 strain of the bacterium. UNH researchers used genotyping and whole genome DNA sequencing at the UNH Hubbard Center for Genome Studies on 94 clinical isolates collected from 2010 to 2013 in Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine. They determined that it is this particular strain of the bacterium that has been responsible for the bulk of the Vibrio outbreaks in the Northeast in recent years. Researchers were able to identify specific genes found only in the invasive strain.
Details on the regional pathogens used to develop the new detection method are presented in the April issue of Frontiers in Microbiology in the article "Genetic characterization of clinical and environmental Vibrio parahaemolyticus from the Northeast USA reveals emerging resident and non-indigenous pathogen lineages."
The research has been funded for multiple years by the NH Agricultural Experiment Station (NHAES), which receives support from the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Scientists also received support from NH Sea Grant, which is funded by National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration, the UNH College of Life Sciences and Agriculture, UNH School of Marine Science and Ocean Engineering, National Institutes of Health, and National Science Foundation Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR).
"This important breakthrough is an example of the critical need to support a strong research portfolio that spans the range from solving immediate issues to developing fundamental knowledge about the agricultural, food, and environmental systems that are central to the experiment station's mission. At some point, the information we derive from what is commonly termed basic research becomes critical to solving new problems as they arise," said Jon Wraith, dean of the UNH College of Life Sciences and Agriculture and director of the NH Agricultural Experiment Station.
The presence of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus is rare in the Northeast as cooler water temperatures protect against bacterial growth. However, with the regions' rise in ocean temperatures and unusually heavy, intermittent rainstorms, conditions have changed over time, generating a host of problems that impact people's health and the economy.
In the 1980s, UNH scientists were the first to detect Vibrio vulnificus - a potentially more serious species of Vibrio - north of Long Island Sound. Since then Vibrios have been studied throughout the shellfish and waters of the Great Bay Estuary.
Founded in 1887, the NH Agricultural Experiment Station at the UNH College of Life Sciences and Agriculture is UNH's original research center and an elemental component of New Hampshire's land-grant university heritage and mission.
The University of New Hampshire, founded in 1866, is a world-class public research university with the feel of a New England liberal arts college. A land, sea, and space-grant university, UNH is the state's flagship public institution, enrolling 13,000 undergraduate and 2,500 graduate students.
Lori Wright | EurekAlert!
Unique communication strategy discovered in stem cell pathway controlling plant growth
23.03.2018 | Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
“How trees coexist” – new findings from biodiversity research published in Nature Communications
22.03.2018 | Technische Universität Dresden
Satellites in near-Earth orbit are at risk due to the steady increase in space debris. But their mission in the areas of telecommunications, navigation or weather forecasts is essential for society. Fraunhofer FHR therefore develops radar-based systems which allow the detection, tracking and cataloging of even the smallest particles of debris. Satellite operators who have access to our data are in a better position to plan evasive maneuvers and prevent destructive collisions. From April, 25-29 2018, Fraunhofer FHR and its partners will exhibit the complementary radar systems TIRA and GESTRA as well as the latest radar techniques for space observation across three stands at the ILA Berlin.
The "traffic situation" in space is very tense: the Earth is currently being orbited not only by countless satellites but also by a large volume of space...
An international team of researchers has discovered a new anti-cancer protein. The protein, called LHPP, prevents the uncontrolled proliferation of cancer cells in the liver. The researchers led by Prof. Michael N. Hall from the Biozentrum, University of Basel, report in “Nature” that LHPP can also serve as a biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of liver cancer.
The incidence of liver cancer, also known as hepatocellular carcinoma, is steadily increasing. In the last twenty years, the number of cases has almost doubled...
In just a few weeks from now, the Chinese space station Tiangong-1 will re-enter the Earth's atmosphere where it will to a large extent burn up. It is possible that some debris will reach the Earth's surface. Tiangong-1 is orbiting the Earth uncontrolled at a speed of approx. 29,000 km/h.Currently the prognosis relating to the time of impact currently lies within a window of several days. The scientists at Fraunhofer FHR have already been monitoring Tiangong-1 for a number of weeks with their TIRA system, one of the most powerful space observation radars in the world, with a view to supporting the German Space Situational Awareness Center and the ESA with their re-entry forecasts.
Following the loss of radio contact with Tiangong-1 in 2016 and due to the low orbital height, it is now inevitable that the Chinese space station will...
Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP, provider of research and development services for OLED lighting solutions, announces the founding of the “OLED Licht Forum” and presents latest OLED design and lighting solutions during light+building, from March 18th – 23rd, 2018 in Frankfurt a.M./Germany, at booth no. F91 in Hall 4.0.
They are united in their passion for OLED (organic light emitting diodes) lighting with all of its unique facets and application possibilities. Thus experts in...
A new scenario seeking to explain how Mars' putative oceans came and went over the last 4 billion years implies that the oceans formed several hundred million...
23.03.2018 | Event News
19.03.2018 | Event News
16.03.2018 | Event News
23.03.2018 | Materials Sciences
23.03.2018 | Agricultural and Forestry Science
23.03.2018 | Physics and Astronomy