Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Researchers devise microreactor to study formation of methane hydrate

23.08.2017

NYU Tandon team is first to be able to measure how by how much transport phenomena affect crystal propagation rates

Researchers at the NYU Tandon School of Engineering are using a novel means of studying how methane and water form methane hydrate that allows them to examine discrete steps in the process faster and more efficiently.


A thermoelectrically-cooled microreactor developed in the lab of NYU Tandon Professor Ryan Hartman provides insights into the crysallization of methane and water to form methane hydrate. The device comprises microchannels etched in silicon then bonded to a substrate to create 3-D microstructures. A thermoelectric cooling system enables stepwise temperature changes and isothermal operation. Stainless steel compression chucks enabled the delivery of fluids to and from the devices.

Credit: Ryan Hartman

NYU Tandon researchers led by Ryan Hartman, an assistant professor of biomolecular and chemical engineering who runs Tandon's Flow Chemistry with Microsystems Laboratory, are using microfluidics -- the precise control and manipulation of fluids by constraining them to sub-millimeter geometries -- along with small changes in temperature to explore the indeterminate process by which methane gas becomes a solid hydrate when exposed to water.

The work has implications for engineering and climate science. An enormous amount of methane is trapped in permafrost and beneath the ocean's artic bed, much of it in an ice-locked methane hydrate state, in which methane is enclosed in cages of water molecules. Understanding how methane -- which absorbs 30 times as much solar radiation as carbon dioxide -- interacts with water to become a crystalline gas hydrate and, conversely, how it dissociates back to its gaseous state, is critical to an understanding of how it could catalyze, or perhaps slow, climate change. It could also lead to new technologies for gas separations, and efficient and safe storage of natural gas as the amount of energy in natural gas hydrate deposits is at least twice that of all other fossil fuels combined.

In research exploring how the transfer of heat and mass affect the formation of hydrates, published in Lab on a Chip, a journal of the Royal Society of Chemistry, the team established a novel method for studying the growth of methane hydrate films: a thermoelectrically cooled microchannel reactor designed by Hartman's laboratory. Uniquely, the technology allows for "stepwise" changes in temperature, vastly reducing experimental time from hours or days, to minutes or even seconds, while enabling a much more precise examination of the process through in situ spectroscopic techniques. Thanks to this technology Hartman's team is also the first to be able to measure the degree to which mass transfer, which includes such phenomena as diffusion, affects crystal propagation rates.

Researchers generally agree that gas hydrate formation begins with nucleation, wherein water molecules begin to form a latticework that entraps "guest" molecules of a gas like methane. Crystallization, in which the process rapidly expands outward from these seeds of crystal formation to larger structures -- such as sheets at the interface of water and gas -- follows. The kinetics of nucleation and other discrete steps on the way to hydrate formation are poorly understood partly because of the limitations of traditional batch reactors (essentially high-pressure tanks with agitators and heating or cooling equipment), in which water is "blanketed" with super-cooled methane gas. Such systems require that the phase boundary temperature for hydrate formation, where the boundary is the interface between methane gas and super-cooled water, be lowered by as much as 10 degrees Kelvin. Even so, nucleation can take hours or days in such systems.

Using the new technology, Hartman's doctoral student Weiqi Chen and postdoctoral associate Bruno Pinho were able to incrementally sub-cool water molecules an order of magnitude less than required in larger-scale batch systems, achieving nucleation at only one-degree Kelvin increments, over a much shorter time frame.

In Hartman's isothermal system, temperature cycling -- wherein experimental temperatures alternate between two extremes -- with cooling rates on the order of seconds, allowed the researchers to form and use the nuclei quickly enough to conduct large numbers of tests in a much shorter time than traditional methods.

"Nucleation is difficult to predict," said Hartman. "It can take minutes or sometimes days in the formation of gas hydrates. But because we are able to cycle the temperature within seconds we can form seed crystals and use the nuclei we form to reproducibly form larger crystals."

Hartman's technology allowed the team to demonstrate that the propagation rate of crystals is dependent on a combination of heat transfer (through convection or fluid motion, for instance), mass transfer, and intrinsic crystallization (the rate at which hydrate crystals form when unimpeded by heat or mass transfer).

"Imagine commuting from home to work using the same route every day," Hartman explained. "You cross three bridges, and depending on the day, one, two, or all three are congested. By how much each bridge slows you down, relatively speaking compared to the others, determines the overall time of your commute. In the context of hydrate crystallization, traffic congestion on the first bridge is heat transfer resistance, the second bridge is mass transfer resistance, and intrinsic crystallization the third. The rate at which hydrate crystals form can depend on all three. What we have done is to discover a way to measure it."

###

This work was supported primarily by the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (MRSER) program of the National Science Foundation.

"Flash crystallization kinetics of methane (sI) hydrate in a thermoelectrically-cooled microreactor" is available at http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlepdf/2014/LC/C7LC00645D?page=search

About the New York University Tandon School of Engineering

The NYU Tandon School of Engineering dates to 1854, the founding date for both the New York University School of Civil Engineering and Architecture and the Brooklyn Collegiate and Polytechnic Institute (widely known as Brooklyn Poly). A January 2014 merger created a comprehensive school of education and research in engineering and applied sciences, rooted in a tradition of invention and entrepreneurship and dedicated to furthering technology in service to society. In addition to its main location in Brooklyn, NYU Tandon collaborates with other schools within NYU, the country's largest private research university, and is closely connected to engineering programs at NYU Abu Dhabi and NYU Shanghai. It operates Future Labs focused on start-up businesses in downtown Manhattan and Brooklyn and an award-winning online graduate program. For more information, visit http://engineering.nyu.edu.

Karl Greenberg | EurekAlert!

More articles from Materials Sciences:

nachricht Magnesium magnificent for plasmonic applications
23.05.2018 | Rice University

nachricht New concept for structural colors
18.05.2018 | Technische Universität Hamburg-Harburg

All articles from Materials Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: LZH showcases laser material processing of tomorrow at the LASYS 2018

At the LASYS 2018, from June 5th to 7th, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) will be showcasing processes for the laser material processing of tomorrow in hall 4 at stand 4E75. With blown bomb shells the LZH will present first results of a research project on civil security.

At this year's LASYS, the LZH will exhibit light-based processes such as cutting, welding, ablation and structuring as well as additive manufacturing for...

Im Focus: Self-illuminating pixels for a new display generation

There are videos on the internet that can make one marvel at technology. For example, a smartphone is casually bent around the arm or a thin-film display is rolled in all directions and with almost every diameter. From the user's point of view, this looks fantastic. From a professional point of view, however, the question arises: Is that already possible?

At Display Week 2018, scientists from the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research IAP will be demonstrating today’s technological possibilities and...

Im Focus: Explanation for puzzling quantum oscillations has been found

So-called quantum many-body scars allow quantum systems to stay out of equilibrium much longer, explaining experiment | Study published in Nature Physics

Recently, researchers from Harvard and MIT succeeded in trapping a record 53 atoms and individually controlling their quantum state, realizing what is called a...

Im Focus: Dozens of binaries from Milky Way's globular clusters could be detectable by LISA

Next-generation gravitational wave detector in space will complement LIGO on Earth

The historic first detection of gravitational waves from colliding black holes far outside our galaxy opened a new window to understanding the universe. A...

Im Focus: Entangled atoms shine in unison

A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. This fundamental demonstration could lead to the development of highly sensitive optical gradiometers for the precise measurement of the gravitational field or the earth's magnetic field.

The age of quantum technology has long been heralded. Decades of research into the quantum world have led to the development of methods that make it possible...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Save the date: Forum European Neuroscience – 07-11 July 2018 in Berlin, Germany

02.05.2018 | Event News

Invitation to the upcoming "Current Topics in Bioinformatics: Big Data in Genomics and Medicine"

13.04.2018 | Event News

Unique scope of UV LED technologies and applications presented in Berlin: ICULTA-2018

12.04.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Research reveals how order first appears in liquid crystals

23.05.2018 | Life Sciences

Space-like gravity weakens biochemical signals in muscle formation

23.05.2018 | Life Sciences

NIST puts the optical microscope under the microscope to achieve atomic accuracy

23.05.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>