Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New test opens path for better 2-D catalysts

06.10.2017

Rice University, Los Alamos method quickly probes atom-thin materials' ability to produce hydrogen

Rice University researchers have taken a deep look into atom-thick catalysts that produce hydrogen to see precisely where it's coming from. Their findings could accelerate the development of 2-D materials for energy applications, such as fuel cells.


A technique developed by Rice University and Los Alamos National Laboratory will allow researchers to quickly probe atom-thick materials to measure hydrogen production. The Rice lab uses an electron beam to drill submicron holes through an insulating layer of poly(methyl methacrylate) to probe specific areas of nanoscale flakes.

Credit: Jing Zhang/Rice University

The Rice lab of materials scientist Jun Lou, with colleagues at Los Alamos National Laboratory, developed a technique to probe through tiny "windows" created by an electron beam and measure the catalytic activity of molybdenum disulfide, a two-dimensional material that shows promise for applications that use electrocatalysis to extract hydrogen from water.

Initial tests on two variations of the material proved that most production is coming from the thin sheets' edges. The researchers reported their results this month in Advanced Materials.

Researchers already knew the edges of 2-D materials are where the catalytic action is, so any information that helps maximize it is valuable, Lou said.

"We're using this new technology to identify the active sites that have been long-predicted by theory," he said. "There was some indirect proof that the edge sites are always more active than the basal planes, but now we have direct proof."

The probe-bearing microchips developed at Los Alamos and the method created by Lou and lead author Jing Zhang, a Rice postdoctoral researcher, open a pathway to fast screening of potential hydrogen evolution reaction candidates among two-dimensional materials.

"The majority of the material is on the surface, and you want that to be an active catalyst, rather than just the edge," Lou said. "If the reaction only happens at the edge, you lose the benefit of having all the surface area provided by a 2-D geometry."

The lab tested molybdenum disulfide flakes with different crystalline structures known as "1T prime" (or distorted octahedral) and 2H (trigonal prismatic). "They're basically the same material with the same chemical composition, but the positions of their atoms are different," Lou said. "1T prime is metallic and 2H is a semiconductor."

He said researchers have so far experimentally proved the more conductive 1T prime was catalytic along its entire surface area, but the Rice study proved that to be not entirely accurate. "Our results showed the 1T prime edge is always more active than the basal plane. That was a new discovery," he said.

After making the flakes via chemical vapor deposition, Zhang used an electron beam evaporation method to deposit electrodes to individual flakes. He then added an insulating layer of poly(methyl methacrylate), a transparent thermoplastic, and burned a pattern of "windows" in the inert material through e-beam lithography. That allowed the researchers to probe both the edges and basal planes of the 2-D material, or just specific edges, at submicron resolution.

The 16 probes on the inch-square chip built at Los Alamos pulse energy into the flakes through the windows. When hydrogen is produced, it escapes as a gas but steals an electron from the material. That creates a current that can be measured through the electrodes. Probes can be addressed individually or all at once, allowing researchers to get data for multiple sites on a single flake or from multiple flakes.

Rapid testing will help researchers alter their microscopic materials more efficiently to maximize the basal planes' catalytic activity. "Now there's incentive to utilize the strength of this material -- its surface area -- as a catalyst," Lou said. "This is going to be a very good screening technique to accelerate the development of 2-D materials."

###

Co-authors are Rice postdoctoral researchers Jingjie Wu and Hua Gao, graduate students Weibing Chen and Jiangtan Yuan, and Pulickel Ajayan, the Benjamin M. and Mary Greenwood Anderson Professor in Engineering and a professor of materials science and nanoengineering, chemistry, and chemical and biomolecular engineering; and Los Alamos researchers Ulises Martinez, Gautam Gupta and Aditya Mohite. Lou is a professor of materials science and nanoengineering.

The Air Force Office of Scientific Research and the Welch Foundation supported the research.

Read the abstract at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/adma.201701955/abstract

This news release can be found online at http://news.rice.edu/2017/10/05/new-test-opens-path-for-better-2-d-catalysts/

Follow Rice News and Media Relations via Twitter @RiceUNews

Related materials:

Bubbles help new catalysts self-optimize: http://news.rice.edu/2017/07/31/bubbles-help-new-catalysts-self-optimize-2/

Lou Group: http://n3lab.rice.edu

Los Alamos National Laboratory: http://www.lanl.gov

Rice Department of Materials Science and NanoEngineering: https://msne.rice.edu

Image for download:

http://news.rice.edu/files/2017/10/1008_HER-1-WEB-2776h7s.jpg

A technique developed by Rice University and Los Alamos National Laboratory will allow researchers to quickly probe atom-thick materials to measure hydrogen production. The Rice lab uses an electron beam to drill submicron holes through an insulating layer of poly(methyl methacrylate) to probe specific areas of nanoscale flakes. (Credit: Jing Zhang/Rice University) Located on a 300-acre forested campus in Houston, Rice University is consistently ranked among the nation's top 20 universities by U.S. News & World Report. Rice has highly respected schools of Architecture, Business, Continuing Studies, Engineering, Humanities, Music, Natural Sciences and Social Sciences and is home to the Baker Institute for Public Policy. With 3,879 undergraduates and 2,861 graduate students, Rice's undergraduate student-to-faculty ratio is 6-to-1. Its residential college system builds close-knit communities and lifelong friendships, just one reason why Rice is ranked No. 1 for quality of life and for lots of race/class interaction and No. 2 for happiest students by the Princeton Review. Rice is also rated as a best value among private universities by Kiplinger's Personal Finance. To read "What they're saying about Rice," go to http://tinyurl.com/RiceUniversityoverview.

Media Contact

David Ruth
713-348-6327
david@rice.edu

Mike Williams
713-348-6728
mikewilliams@rice.ed

David Ruth | EurekAlert!

More articles from Materials Sciences:

nachricht The stacked colour sensor
16.11.2017 | Empa - Eidgenössische Materialprüfungs- und Forschungsanstalt

nachricht Counterfeits and product piracy can be prevented by security features, such as printed 3-D microstructures
16.11.2017 | Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)

All articles from Materials Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: A “cosmic snake” reveals the structure of remote galaxies

The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.

Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...

Im Focus: Visual intelligence is not the same as IQ

Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.

That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...

Im Focus: Novel Nano-CT device creates high-resolution 3D-X-rays of tiny velvet worm legs

Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.

During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....

Im Focus: Researchers Develop Data Bus for Quantum Computer

The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.

Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...

Im Focus: Wrinkles give heat a jolt in pillared graphene

Rice University researchers test 3-D carbon nanostructures' thermal transport abilities

Pillared graphene would transfer heat better if the theoretical material had a few asymmetric junctions that caused wrinkles, according to Rice University...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Ecology Across Borders: International conference brings together 1,500 ecologists

15.11.2017 | Event News

Road into laboratory: Users discuss biaxial fatigue-testing for car and truck wheel

15.11.2017 | Event News

#Berlin5GWeek: The right network for Industry 4.0

30.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

NASA detects solar flare pulses at Sun and Earth

17.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

NIST scientists discover how to switch liver cancer cell growth from 2-D to 3-D structures

17.11.2017 | Health and Medicine

The importance of biodiversity in forests could increase due to climate change

17.11.2017 | Studies and Analyses

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>