Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New electron microscopy method sculpts 3-D structures at atomic level

10.11.2015

Electron microscopy researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have developed a unique way to build 3-D structures with finely controlled shapes as small as one to two billionths of a meter.

The ORNL study published in the journal Small demonstrates how scanning transmission electron microscopes, normally used as imaging tools, are also capable of precision sculpting of nanometer-sized 3-D features in complex oxide materials.


ORNL researchers used a new scanning transmission electron microscopy technique to sculpt 3-D nanoscale features in a complex oxide material.

Credit: Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory

By offering single atomic plane precision, the technique could find uses in fabricating structures for functional nanoscale devices such as microchips. The structures grow epitaxially, or in perfect crystalline alignment, which ensures that the same electrical and mechanical properties extend throughout the whole material.

"We can make smaller things with more precise shapes," said ORNL's Albina Borisevich, who led the study. "The process is also epitaxial, which gives us much more pronounced control over properties than we could accomplish with other approaches."

ORNL scientists happened upon the method as they were imaging an imperfectly prepared strontium titanate thin film. The sample, consisting of a crystalline substrate covered by an amorphous layer of the same material, transformed as the electron beam passed through it.

A team from ORNL's Institute for Functional Imaging of Materials, which unites scientists from different disciplines, worked together to understand and exploit the discovery.

"When we exposed the amorphous layer to an electron beam, we seemed to nudge it toward adopting its preferred crystalline state," Borisevich said. "It does that exactly where the electron beam is."

The use of a scanning transmission electron microscope, which passes an electron beam through a bulk material, sets the approach apart from lithography techniques that only pattern or manipulate a material's surface.

"We're using fine control of the beam to build something inside the solid itself," said ORNL's Stephen Jesse. "We're making transformations that are buried deep within the structure. It would be like tunneling inside a mountain to build a house."

The technique offers a shortcut to researchers interested in studying how materials' characteristics change with thickness. Instead of imaging multiple samples of varying widths, scientists could use the microscopy method to add layers to the sample and simultaneously observe what happens.

"The whole premise of nanoscience is that sometimes when you shrink a material it exhibits properties that are very different than the bulk material," Borisevich said. "Here we can control that. If we know there is a certain dependence on size, we can determine exactly where we want to be on that curve and go there."

Theoretical calculations on ORNL's Titan supercomputer helped the researchers understand the process's underlying mechanisms. The simulations showed that the observed behavior, known as a knock-on process, is consistent with the electron beam transferring energy to individual atoms in the material rather than heating an area of the material.

"With the electron beam, we are injecting energy into the system and nudging where it would otherwise go by itself, given enough time," Borisevich said. "Thermodynamically it wants to be crystalline, but this process takes a long time at room temperature."

The study is published as "Atomic-level sculpting of crystalline oxides: towards bulk nanofabrication with single atomic plane precision."

###

Coauthors are ORNL's Stephen Jesse, Qian He, Andrew Lupini, Donovan Leonard, Raymond Unocic, Alexander Tselev, Miguel Fuentes-Cabrera, Bobby Sumpter, Sergei Kalinin and Albina Borisevich, Vanderbilt University's Mark Oxley and Oleg Ovchinnikov and the National University of Singapore's Stephen Pennycook.

The research was conducted as part of ORNL's Institute for Functional Imaging of Materials and was supported by DOE's Office of Science and ORNL's Laboratory Directed Research and Development program. The study used resources at ORNL's Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences and the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility, which are both DOE Office of Science User Facilities.

ORNL is managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy's Office of Science. DOE's Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States, and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information, please visit science.energy.gov.

Media Contact

Morgan McCorkle
mccorkleml@ornl.gov
865-574-7308

 @ORNL

http://www.ornl.gov 

Morgan McCorkle | EurekAlert!

More articles from Materials Sciences:

nachricht Physics, photosynthesis and solar cells
01.12.2016 | University of California - Riverside

nachricht New process produces hydrogen at much lower temperature
01.12.2016 | Waseda University

All articles from Materials Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

Im Focus: MADMAX: Max Planck Institute for Physics takes up axion research

The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.

The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...

Im Focus: Molecules change shape when wet

Broadband rotational spectroscopy unravels structural reshaping of isolated molecules in the gas phase to accommodate water

In two recent publications in the Journal of Chemical Physics and in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, researchers around Melanie Schnell from the Max...

Im Focus: Fraunhofer ISE Develops Highly Compact, High Frequency DC/DC Converter for Aviation

The efficiency of power electronic systems is not solely dependent on electrical efficiency but also on weight, for example, in mobile systems. When the weight of relevant components and devices in airplanes, for instance, is reduced, fuel savings can be achieved and correspondingly greenhouse gas emissions decreased. New materials and components based on gallium nitride (GaN) can help to reduce weight and increase the efficiency. With these new materials, power electronic switches can be operated at higher switching frequency, resulting in higher power density and lower material costs.

Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE together with partners have investigated how these materials can be used to make power...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

UTSA study describes new minimally invasive device to treat cancer and other illnesses

02.12.2016 | Medical Engineering

Plasma-zapping process could yield trans fat-free soybean oil product

02.12.2016 | Agricultural and Forestry Science

What do Netflix, Google and planetary systems have in common?

02.12.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>