Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Explaining how 2-D materials break at the atomic level

18.01.2017

IBS physicists found that to shed light on the cracking of MoS2, we must go beyond the theory used so far

Cracks sank the 'unsinkable' Titanic; decrease the performance of touchscreens and erode teeth. We are familiar with cracks in big or small three-dimensional (3D) objects, but how do thin two-dimensional (2D) materials crack? 2D materials, like molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), have emerged as an important asset for future electronic and photoelectric devices. However, the mechanical properties of 2D materials are expected to differ greatly from 3D materials.


Schematic representation of the crack propagation in 2-D MoS2 at the atomic level. Dislocations shown with red and purple dots are visible at the crack tip zone. Internal tensile stresses are represented by red arrows.

Credit: IBS

Scientists at the Center for Integrated Nanostructure Physics (CINAP), within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) published, on Nature Communications, the first observation of 2D MoS2 cracking at the atomic level. This study is expected to contribute to the applications of new 2D materials.

Obviously when a certain force is applied to a material a crack is created. Less obvious is how to explain and predict the shape and seriousness of a crack from a physics point of view. Scientists want to investigate which fractures are likely to expand and which are not .Materials are divided into ductile and brittle:

Ductile materials, like gold, withstand large strains before rupturing; brittle materials, like glass, can absorb relatively little energy before breaking suddenly, without elongation and deformation. At the nano-level atoms move freer in ductile materials than in brittle materials; so in the presence of a pulling force (tensile stress) they can go out of position from the ordered crystal structure, or in technical terms - they dislocate. So far, this explanation (Griffith model) has been applied to cracking phenomena in bulk, but it lacks experimental data at the atomic or nano-scale.

In this study, IBS scientists observed how cracks propagate on 2D MoS2 after a pore was formed either spontaneously or with an electron beam. "The most difficult point {of the experiments} was to use the electron beam to create the pore without generating other defects or breaking the sample," explains Thuc Hue Ly, first author of this study. "So we had to be fast and use a minimum amount of energy."

The atomic observations were done using real-time transmission electron microscopy. Surprisingly, even though MoS2 is a brittle material, the team saw atom dislocations 3-5 nanometers (nm) away from the front line of the crack, or crack tip. This observation cannot be explained with the Griffith model.

In order to create conditions that represent the natural environment, the sample was exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light. This caused the MoS2 to oxidize; atom dislocations occurred more rapidly and the stretched region expanded to 5-10 nm from the crack tip.

"The study shows that cracking in 2D materials is fundamentally different from cracking in 3D ductile and brittle materials. These results cannot be explained with the conventional material failure theory, and we suggest that a new theory is needed," explained Professor LEE Young Hee (CINAP).

Dahee Carol Kim | EurekAlert!

More articles from Materials Sciences:

nachricht Contacting the molecular world through graphene nanoribbons
19.02.2018 | Elhuyar Fundazioa

nachricht When Proteins Shake Hands
19.02.2018 | Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena

All articles from Materials Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: In best circles: First integrated circuit from self-assembled polymer

For the first time, a team of researchers at the Max-Planck Institute (MPI) for Polymer Research in Mainz, Germany, has succeeded in making an integrated circuit (IC) from just a monolayer of a semiconducting polymer via a bottom-up, self-assembly approach.

In the self-assembly process, the semiconducting polymer arranges itself into an ordered monolayer in a transistor. The transistors are binary switches used...

Im Focus: Demonstration of a single molecule piezoelectric effect

Breakthrough provides a new concept of the design of molecular motors, sensors and electricity generators at nanoscale

Researchers from the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of the CAS (IOCB Prague), Institute of Physics of the CAS (IP CAS) and Palacký University...

Im Focus: Hybrid optics bring color imaging using ultrathin metalenses into focus

For photographers and scientists, lenses are lifesavers. They reflect and refract light, making possible the imaging systems that drive discovery through the microscope and preserve history through cameras.

But today's glass-based lenses are bulky and resist miniaturization. Next-generation technologies, such as ultrathin cameras or tiny microscopes, require...

Im Focus: Stem cell divisions in the adult brain seen for the first time

Scientists from the University of Zurich have succeeded for the first time in tracking individual stem cells and their neuronal progeny over months within the intact adult brain. This study sheds light on how new neurons are produced throughout life.

The generation of new nerve cells was once thought to taper off at the end of embryonic development. However, recent research has shown that the adult brain...

Im Focus: Interference as a new method for cooling quantum devices

Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. Study published in Physical Review Letters

Quantum computer parts are sensitive and need to be cooled to very low temperatures. Their tiny size makes them particularly susceptible to a temperature...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

2nd International Conference on High Temperature Shape Memory Alloys (HTSMAs)

15.02.2018 | Event News

Aachen DC Grid Summit 2018

13.02.2018 | Event News

How Global Climate Policy Can Learn from the Energy Transition

12.02.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Contacting the molecular world through graphene nanoribbons

19.02.2018 | Materials Sciences

When Proteins Shake Hands

19.02.2018 | Materials Sciences

Cells communicate in a dynamic code

19.02.2018 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>