Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Artificial Spin Ice: A New Playground to Better Understand Magnetism

30.04.2015

Experiments using novel magnetic nanostructures confirm theoretically predicted behavior -- bolstering their utility as a tool for understanding complex magnetic materials.

The Science


Image courtesy of Nature Physics 10, 670, 2014

Scanning electron micrograph (top) shows the arrangement of iron-nickel nanomagnets for the newly developed “shakti” artificial spin ice lattice. In the lattice, 2, 3, and 4 nanomagnets meet in periodic arrays. Magnetic force microscope image (bottom) shows the poles of the nanomagnets (dark and light contrast).

Newswise — For the first time, nanomagnet islands or arrays were arranged into an exotic structure (called “shakti”) that does not directly relate to any known natural material. The shakti artificial spin ice configuration was fabricated and reproduced experimentally. The arrays are theoretical predictions of multiple, or degenerate, ground states that are characteristic of complex frustrated magnetic materials.

The Impact

Complex nanomagnet arrays with exotic geometries can be designed and fabricated to exhibit desired physical phenomena and subtle effects. The results open the door to experiments on other artificial spin-ice lattices, predicted to host interesting phenomena. The phenomena are associated with the design of the exotic lattice structures where the topology governs the physics and properties of the material.

Summary

Artificial spin ice is a class of lithographically created arrays of interacting ferromagnetic nanometer-scale islands. Researchers created artificial spin ice as a means to investigate complex magnetism and the related physics in a material that could be tailored to precise specifications and imaged directly. Because of the large magnetic energy scales of these nanoscale islands, a special, newly developed thermal treatment is required to achieve the magnetic ground state. In this research, iron-nickel nanomagnets were fabricated in shakti arrays, a structure with 2, 3, and 4 nanomagnet islands meeting in periodic arrays (resulting in vertexes with 2, 3, and 4 coordination numbers). Then, the structure underwent a thermal treatment by heating it above the Curie temperature (the temperature at which the nanomagnets become magnetic). In this manner, the artificial spin ice achieved unprecedented thermal ground state ordering of the magnetic moments. In these investigations, the shakti spin ice lattices were used to experimentally confirm the ground states of the lattice predicted by Monte Carlo simulations and to study the dynamics and charge screening effects for the system.

Funding

DOE Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences program. Lithography was performed in part with the support of the National Science Foundation National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network. Work performed at the University of Minnesota was supported by the European Union Marie Curie International Outgoing Fellowships.

Publications

I. Gilbert, G. W. Chern, S. Zhang, L. O’Brien, B. Fore, C. Nisoli, P. Schiffer, “Emergent ice rule and magnetic charge screening from vertex frustration in artificial spin ice.” Nature Physics 10, 670 (2014). [DOI: 10.1038/nphys3037]

S. Zhang, I. Gilbert, C. Nisoli, G.W. Chern, M.J. Erickson, L. O’Brien, C. Leighton, P.E. Lammert, V.H. Crespi, P. Schiffer, “Crystallites of magnetic charges in artificial spin ice.” Nature 500, 553–557 (2013). [DOI: 10.1038/nature12399]

Contact Information
Kristin Manke
kristin.manke@science.doe.gov

Kristin Manke | newswise
Further information:
http://www.science.doe.gov

More articles from Materials Sciences:

nachricht Move over, Superman! NIST method sees through concrete to detect early-stage corrosion
27.04.2017 | National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

nachricht Control of molecular motion by metal-plated 3-D printed plastic pieces
27.04.2017 | Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne

All articles from Materials Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Making lightweight construction suitable for series production

More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.

Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...

Im Focus: Wonder material? Novel nanotube structure strengthens thin films for flexible electronics

Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.

"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...

Im Focus: Deep inside Galaxy M87

The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.

Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...

Im Focus: A Quantum Low Pass for Photons

Physicists in Garching observe novel quantum effect that limits the number of emitted photons.

The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...

Im Focus: Microprocessors based on a layer of just three atoms

Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.

Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Fighting drug resistant tuberculosis – InfectoGnostics meets MYCO-NET² partners in Peru

28.04.2017 | Event News

Expert meeting “Health Business Connect” will connect international medical technology companies

20.04.2017 | Event News

Wenn der Computer das Gehirn austrickst

18.04.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Wireless power can drive tiny electronic devices in the GI tract

28.04.2017 | Medical Engineering

Ice cave in Transylvania yields window into region's past

28.04.2017 | Earth Sciences

Nose2Brain – Better Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis

28.04.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>