Farming and plant protection are segments of agriculture and forestry an independent area.
Agriculture involves all issues related to the production of food for humans and animals. Farming is the segment of agriculture that cultivates and farms fields to produce renewable raw materials. In addition to the targeted cultivation of crops, farming also involves maintenance and plant protection. Farming requires taking into account a wide variety of factors, such as managing fields with some degree of crop rotation. That means no field is cultivated with the same crop two years in a row. As a result, a variety of minerals are used, giving the soil time to regenerate. Plant protection is necessary in the farming industry in order to keep crops from withering and to protect them from pests and vermin. Shortly after the harvest, the soil is prepared for the next season. Farming, including plant protection, is often mentioned in the same breath as forestry, although this is inaccurate since forestry is an independent field.
The term "plant protection" was used within the farming industry as early as 1890. Plant protection is described as all measures aimed at preventing the damage and diminishment of agricultural crop output. The German requirements relating to plant protection for the farming industry are outlined in the plant protection law . Plant protection may be carried out only by those with the proper training and those who adhere to the basic principles of integrated plant protection and protection of the ground water. Plant protection is one of the core elements of farming because it ensures a high-quality yield and healthy human nutrition. A special form of plant protection entails measures to combat birds that cause crop damage. Species that pose a threat to farming include blackbirds and starlings. This type of plant protection utilizes optical or acoustic measures to drive the birds off. The farming industry receives assistance with plant protection issues through special information sources and also via financial help. Without plant protection, the farming industry would be less productive.Demarcation line between forestry and farming
Both forestry and farming involve the cultivation of renewable raw materials. The difference is that forestry is not focused on the financial aspect. Instead, the primary aim is the preservation and protection of the forests. Trees are thinned out when they are too close to other trees, when they die or if room for new plants must be made. Although forestry certainly has one eye on profits, the well-being of the forest is always the main objective. The importance of forestry and wood products is universally underestimated. Thanks to the forestry industry, we enjoy wood furniture, books and firewood. Forestry is a vital part of our lives, even if we don't actively participate. Forestry involves methodical work to keep forests alive. In Germany, there are three different forms of ownership: government, community and private. Despite the different forms, they all have to be managed with the principles of forestry in mind. Each German Bundesland (state) has enacted a state forestry law. The chief foresters are responsible for monitoring the implementation of the law. With the most forest acreage in Germany, Bavaria boasts the country's largest forestry operations.
The farming and plant protection industries contribute to a high quality of life and low product prices by maintaining the highest possible crop yield per field. While forestry places a high value on sustainability like farming and plant protection, the primary aim is still ensuring the health of the forests.
This special field deals with the primary production of human and animal foodstuffs as well as renewable raw materials. Also addressed are issues related to habitats for flora and fauna, recreation or landscape and common use.
Among other subjects, reports are available on topics such as crop and plant management, ecological farming, horticulture, viticulture, forest management and agriculture.
Global warming could create substantial economic damage in agriculture, a new study conducted by a team of scientists of the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK) finds. Around the globe, climate change threatens agricultural productivity, forcing up food prices. While financial gains and losses differ between consumers and producers across the regions, bottom line is that consumers in general will likely have to pay more for the same basket of food. As the additional expenditure for consumers outweighs producers’ gains, increasing net economic losses will occur in the agriculture and food sector towards the end of the century.
However, economic losses could be limited to 0.3 percent of global GDP – depending on agricultural trade policies.25.08.2016 | Read more
An international research team found new targets to strenghten cell walls against the powdery mildew pathogen in barley
An international research team with participation of the Leibniz-Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK)/ Germany and the University of...19.08.2016 | Read more
The Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP in conjunction with project partners including Nordkorn Saaten GmbH from Güstrow in the German state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, has developed a high production-capacity, compact, and scalable unit for non-chemical dressing of seed product. The new design will be debuted at the 26th MELA tradeshow for the agriculture, nutrition, aquaculture, forestry, hunting, and landscape architecture industries in Mühlengeez near Rostock in northern Germany, September 15-18, 2016 in Hall 2 at booth 249.
Providing the expanding population with healthy foodstuffs is an enormous challenge whose solution begins very early in the production chain. Besides familiar...16.08.2016 | Read more
Later planting dates, flurprimidol soak optimize plant appearance, marketability
In order to introduce new flowering plants to market, breeders and growers need proven strategies for producing healthy, compact plants during times of highest...29.07.2016 | Read more
Perennial ryegrass reestablished in 6 weeks after diesel, hydraulic fluid spills
Petroleum-based spills on turfgrass can occur during lawn care and maintenance, primarily as a result of equipment failure or improper refueling. When these...29.07.2016 | Read more
Model can help forest managers better maintain forests by predicting which trees will survive
Land managers, forestry professionals and conservationists seek to predict how trees will grow so they can better manage existing forests and regrow forests...27.07.2016 | Read more
Male honey bees, called drones, can be affected by two neonicotinoid insecticides by reducing male honey bee lifespan and number of living sperm. Both insecticides are currently partially banned in Europe. Researchers from Bern, Switzerland, together with partners from Thailand and Germany, call for more thorough environmental risk assessments of these neonicotinoids.
In recent years, beekeepers have struggled to maintain healthy honey bee colonies throughout the northern hemisphere. In the first study to investigate the...27.07.2016 | Read more
Optimal nitrogen, fertigation system recommended for minimizing transplant shock in globe artichokes
According to the authors of a new study, transplant shock is very common in globe artichoke grown in semiarid regions of the United States; high air...21.07.2016 | Read more
Discovering new data on barley domestication
An international team of researchers has succeeded for the first time in sequencing the genome of Chalcolithic barley grains. This is the oldest plant genome...19.07.2016 | Read more
Automakers torture test their cars on special tracks that simulate real driving conditions. Germany's automakers have their fabled Nurburgring track. GM has its Desert Proving Ground in California. Now Michigan State University has DEPI - Dynamic Environmental Photosynthetic Imaging - to test-drive plants so scientists and plant breeders can make them work better and produce more.
Many car companies push test models to their limits at Nurburgring before selling them off the showroom floor. For scientists, standard laboratory conditions...13.07.2016 | Read more
Scientists and engineers striving to create the next machine-age marvel--whether it be a more aerodynamic rocket, a faster race car, or a higher-efficiency jet...
Waveguides are widely used for filtering, confining, guiding, coupling or splitting beams of visible light. However, creating waveguides that could do the same for X-rays has posed tremendous challenges in fabrication, so they are still only in an early stage of development.
In the latest issue of Acta Crystallographica Section A: Foundations and Advances , Sarah Hoffmann-Urlaub and Tim Salditt report the fabrication and testing of...
Electrochemists at TU Graz have managed to use monocrystalline semiconductor silicon as an active storage electrode in lithium batteries. This enables an integrated power supply to be made for microchips with a rechargeable battery.
Small electrical gadgets, such as mobile phones, tablets or notebooks, are indispensable accompaniments of everyday life. Integrated circuits in the interiors...
Recent findings indicating the possible discovery of a previously unknown subatomic particle may be evidence of a fifth fundamental force of nature, according...
A nanocrystalline material that rapidly makes white light out of blue light has been developed by KAUST researchers.
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