Farming and plant protection are segments of agriculture and forestry an independent area.
Agriculture involves all issues related to the production of food for humans and animals. Farming is the segment of agriculture that cultivates and farms fields to produce renewable raw materials. In addition to the targeted cultivation of crops, farming also involves maintenance and plant protection. Farming requires taking into account a wide variety of factors, such as managing fields with some degree of crop rotation. That means no field is cultivated with the same crop two years in a row. As a result, a variety of minerals are used, giving the soil time to regenerate. Plant protection is necessary in the farming industry in order to keep crops from withering and to protect them from pests and vermin. Shortly after the harvest, the soil is prepared for the next season. Farming, including plant protection, is often mentioned in the same breath as forestry, although this is inaccurate since forestry is an independent field.
The term "plant protection" was used within the farming industry as early as 1890. Plant protection is described as all measures aimed at preventing the damage and diminishment of agricultural crop output. The German requirements relating to plant protection for the farming industry are outlined in the plant protection law . Plant protection may be carried out only by those with the proper training and those who adhere to the basic principles of integrated plant protection and protection of the ground water. Plant protection is one of the core elements of farming because it ensures a high-quality yield and healthy human nutrition. A special form of plant protection entails measures to combat birds that cause crop damage. Species that pose a threat to farming include blackbirds and starlings. This type of plant protection utilizes optical or acoustic measures to drive the birds off. The farming industry receives assistance with plant protection issues through special information sources and also via financial help. Without plant protection, the farming industry would be less productive.Demarcation line between forestry and farming
Both forestry and farming involve the cultivation of renewable raw materials. The difference is that forestry is not focused on the financial aspect. Instead, the primary aim is the preservation and protection of the forests. Trees are thinned out when they are too close to other trees, when they die or if room for new plants must be made. Although forestry certainly has one eye on profits, the well-being of the forest is always the main objective. The importance of forestry and wood products is universally underestimated. Thanks to the forestry industry, we enjoy wood furniture, books and firewood. Forestry is a vital part of our lives, even if we don't actively participate. Forestry involves methodical work to keep forests alive. In Germany, there are three different forms of ownership: government, community and private. Despite the different forms, they all have to be managed with the principles of forestry in mind. Each German Bundesland (state) has enacted a state forestry law. The chief foresters are responsible for monitoring the implementation of the law. With the most forest acreage in Germany, Bavaria boasts the country's largest forestry operations.
The farming and plant protection industries contribute to a high quality of life and low product prices by maintaining the highest possible crop yield per field. While forestry places a high value on sustainability like farming and plant protection, the primary aim is still ensuring the health of the forests.
This special field deals with the primary production of human and animal foodstuffs as well as renewable raw materials. Also addressed are issues related to habitats for flora and fauna, recreation or landscape and common use.
Among other subjects, reports are available on topics such as crop and plant management, ecological farming, horticulture, viticulture, forest management and agriculture.
Optimizing nitrogen, mulch with perfect proportions... and poultry litter
Most of us think that farmers grow and harvest crops for food. That's true for many crops: they either feed humans or farm animals. However, there's another...01.10.2015 | Read more
Kenaf seeds as well as other seedlings such as corn can now be planted in an economical, easier and organized way and faster with the use of pneumatic seeding machine, developed by researchers in Malaysia.
Kenaf seeds as well as other seedlings such as corn can now be planted in an economical, easier and organized way and faster with the use of pneumatic seeding...23.09.2015 | Read more
Researchers say diverse agroecosystems are more resilient to variable weather from climate change.
U.S. farmers are growing fewer types of crops than they were 34 years ago, which could have implications for how farms fare as changes to the climate evolve,...18.09.2015 | Read more
Multi-resistant bacteria represent a major problem not only in hospitals but also in animal husbandry. A study of the University Bonn describes how a farmer successfully eliminated these pathogens entirely from his pig stable. However, the radical hygiene measures taken in this case can only be applied in individual cases. Nevertheless, the work has yielded a number of recommendations – not only for farms but also for hospitals. The study appeared in the Journal of Applied and Environmental Microbiology.
Today some farms are implementing measures more frequently found in an operating theater: To enter the stable, employees have to change clothes. Before and...07.09.2015 | Read more
Solving the mystery of erosion in the south Tobacco Creek watershed
You may have noticed that after a heavy rainstorm, creeks and rivers often turn the color of chocolate milk. That cloudy brown color is caused by...03.09.2015 | Read more
Longer, more severe, and hotter droughts and a myriad of other threats, including diseases and more extensive and severe wildfires, are threatening to transform some of the world's temperate forests, a new study published in Science has found. Without informed management, some forests could convert to shrublands or grasslands within the coming decades.
"While we have been trying to manage for resilience of 20th century conditions, we realize now that we must prepare for transformations and attempt to ease...31.08.2015 | Read more
A mainly UC Riverside group of researchers improves a resource used worldwide
Barley, a widely grown cereal grain commonly used to make beer and other alcoholic beverages, possesses a large and highly repetitive genome that is difficult...26.08.2015 | Read more
Entomologists in Texas got a whiff of a new stink bug doing economic damage to soybeans in Texas and are developing ways to help farmers combat it, according to a report in the journal Environmental Entomology.
Entomologists in Texas got a whiff of a new stink bug doing economic damage to soybeans in Texas and are developing ways to help farmers combat it, according...25.08.2015 | Read more
Sitting in an air-conditioned office at the Texas A&M AgriLife Research and Extension Center at Beaumont, it's obvious: People work better indoors when...19.08.2015 | Read more
For equestrian training you do not necessarily need a horse. Riding simulators to train the riders’ skills have become available recently. Scientists of the Vetmeduni Vienna in Austria investigated possible differences between riding a horse and training with a simulator. The result: the simulator is less demanding and less complex than the horse, although simulator training can be initially stressful for riders. The study was published in the Journal of Equine Veterinary Science.
Flight simulators for the training of air pilots are well known. But what about riding simulators? Although the first horse simulator was used at the French...04.08.2015 | Read more
The MICADO camera, a first light instrument for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), has entered a new phase in the project: by agreeing to a Memorandum of Understanding, the partners in Germany, France, the Netherlands, Austria, and Italy, have all confirmed their participation. Following this milestone, the project's transition into its preliminary design phase was approved at a kick-off meeting held in Vienna. Two weeks earlier, on September 18, the consortium and the European Southern Observatory (ESO), which is building the telescope, have signed the corresponding collaboration agreement.
As the first dedicated camera for the E-ELT, MICADO will equip the giant telescope with a capability for diffraction-limited imaging at near-infrared...
Self-driving cars will be on our streets in the foreseeable future. In Graz, research is currently dedicated to an innovative driver assistance system that takes over control if there is a danger of collision. It was nature that inspired Dr Manfred Hartbauer from the Institute of Zoology at the University of Graz: in dangerous traffic situations, migratory locusts react around ten times faster than humans. Working together with an interdisciplinary team, Hartbauer is investigating an affordable collision detector that is equipped with artificial locust eyes and can recognise potential crashes in time, during both day and night.
Inspired by insects
An interdisciplinary team of researchers has built the first prototype of a miniature particle accelerator that uses terahertz radiation instead of radio...
At present, tiny magnetic whirls – so called skyrmions – are discussed as promising candidates for bits in future robust and compact data storage devices. At...
In cooperation with the Center for Nano-Optics of Georgia State University in Atlanta (USA), scientists of the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics of the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics and the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität have made simulations of the processes that happen when a layer of carbon atoms is irradiated with strong laser light.
Electrons hit by strong laser pulses change their location on ultrashort timescales, i.e. within a couple of attoseconds (1 as = 10 to the minus 18 sec). In...
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