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Agriculture and forestry

Farming and plant protection are segments of agriculture and forestry an independent area.

Farming - a segment of agriculture

Agriculture involves all issues related to the production of food for humans and animals. Farming is the segment of agriculture that cultivates and farms fields to produce renewable raw materials. In addition to the targeted cultivation of crops, farming also involves maintenance and plant protection. Farming requires taking into account a wide variety of factors, such as managing fields with some degree of crop rotation. That means no field is cultivated with the same crop two years in a row. As a result, a variety of minerals are used, giving the soil time to regenerate. Plant protection is necessary in the farming industry in order to keep crops from withering and to protect them from pests and vermin. Shortly after the harvest, the soil is prepared for the next season. Farming, including plant protection, is often mentioned in the same breath as forestry, although this is inaccurate since forestry is an independent field.

Plant protection as an important element of farming

The term "plant protection" was used within the farming industry as early as 1890. Plant protection is described as all measures aimed at preventing the damage and diminishment of agricultural crop output. The German requirements relating to plant protection for the farming industry are outlined in the plant protection law . Plant protection may be carried out only by those with the proper training and those who adhere to the basic principles of integrated plant protection and protection of the ground water. Plant protection is one of the core elements of farming because it ensures a high-quality yield and healthy human nutrition. A special form of plant protection entails measures to combat birds that cause crop damage. Species that pose a threat to farming include blackbirds and starlings. This type of plant protection utilizes optical or acoustic measures to drive the birds off. The farming industry receives assistance with plant protection issues through special information sources and also via financial help. Without plant protection, the farming industry would be less productive.

Demarcation line between forestry and farming

Both forestry and farming involve the cultivation of renewable raw materials. The difference is that forestry is not focused on the financial aspect. Instead, the primary aim is the preservation and protection of the forests. Trees are thinned out when they are too close to other trees, when they die or if room for new plants must be made. Although forestry certainly has one eye on profits, the well-being of the forest is always the main objective. The importance of forestry and wood products is universally underestimated. Thanks to the forestry industry, we enjoy wood furniture, books and firewood. Forestry is a vital part of our lives, even if we don't actively participate. Forestry involves methodical work to keep forests alive. In Germany, there are three different forms of ownership: government, community and private. Despite the different forms, they all have to be managed with the principles of forestry in mind. Each German Bundesland (state) has enacted a state forestry law. The chief foresters are responsible for monitoring the implementation of the law. With the most forest acreage in Germany, Bavaria boasts the country's largest forestry operations.

Summary

The farming and plant protection industries contribute to a high quality of life and low product prices by maintaining the highest possible crop yield per field. While forestry places a high value on sustainability like farming and plant protection, the primary aim is still ensuring the health of the forests.

Agricultural and Forestry Science

This special field deals with the primary production of human and animal foodstuffs as well as renewable raw materials. Also addressed are issues related to habitats for flora and fauna, recreation or landscape and common use.

Among other subjects, reports are available on topics such as crop and plant management, ecological farming, horticulture, viticulture, forest management and agriculture.

Latest News:

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Forests endangered by climate change, international experts conclude

Forests cover one-third of the Earth’s land surface, and they provide many essential ecological, economic and social services. During the last decades, the scientific community has been alarmed by reports of widespread tree and forest mortality worldwide. Research indicates that this mortality is linked to warmer temperatures, especially when combined with droughts. However, substantial uncertainties exist about precisely how the increasing temperatures and drought cause trees to die. Therefore, realistic predictions of future forest condition and risk assessments of potential broad-scale forest loss are currently not available.

To broadly address this topic, an international group of 65 leading tree physiologists, forest ecologists and modelers from six continents met at the Max...

20.11.2014 | nachricht Read more

Study reveals promise for expanding hard cider industry

A new study by researchers at Washington State University shows that mechanical harvesting of cider apples can provide labor and cost savings without affecting fruit, juice or cider quality.

The study, published in the journal HortTechnology in October, is one of several focused on cider apple production in Washington state. It was conducted in...

14.11.2014 | nachricht Read more

Using wheat as an energy source for beef cattle

Wheat, along with corn and barley, is one of the three major feed grains used in North America. Most of the feed-class wheat is fed to poultry and swine. Beef producers are reluctant to use large quantities of wheat in diets of feedlot cattle because wheat ferments considerably more rapidly in the rumen than corn or barley and increases the risk of ruminal acidosis, which can compromise the health, wellbeing, and productivity of cattle.

In a study published in the November 2014 issue of the Journal of Animal Science (“Impact of hard vs. soft wheat and monensin level on rumen acidosis in...

07.11.2014 | nachricht Read more

International research team develops model for processes of social-ecological change

Human beings and nature have been closely interconnected throughout history; they constitute a joint “social-ecological system”. Population growth, advances in technology, and urbanization are profoundly changing these systems around the globe.

Researchers at the Universities of Cape Town, Kassel, and Göttingen have developed a modelling framework for comparing the causes and consequences of these...

06.11.2014 | nachricht Read more

NEIKER fells pine trees to study their wind resistance

Technicians of the Basque Institute for Agricultural Research and Development NEIKER-Tecnalia have in recent days been felling trees to simulate the effect of the wind in mountains in the Bizkaia locality of Artzentales.

Forestry experts of the French Institute for Agricultural Research INRA together with technicians from NEIKER-Tecnalia and the Chartered Provincial Council of...

05.11.2014 | nachricht Read more

Getting more out of nature: Genetic toolkit finds new maximum for crop yields

An array of gene variants provides 'breakthrough benefits' in tomato yield for breeders; other crops next

Scientists at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) today announced a new way to dramatically increase crop yields by improving upon Mother Nature's offerings....

03.11.2014 | nachricht Read more

New Influenza Virus Affects Cattle, Pigs

Two South Dakota State University researchers will examine a new influenza virus that affects cattle and pigs through a two-year, $393,530 National Institutes of Health grant.

Two South Dakota State University researchers will examine a new influenza virus that affects cattle and pigs through a two-year, $393,530 National Institutes...

03.11.2014 | nachricht Read more

Agricultural Pioneers Sow Seeds of Innovation

FutureFood 2050 highlights new eco-friendly greenhouse technologies, seaweed farms and more, plus an exclusive Q&A with renowned animal scientist Temple Grandin.

Greenhouse lettuce plants bathed in soft pink light that cuts growing time in half. Farmers who boat to their coastal water “fields” of crops. Beef cattle bred...

29.10.2014 | nachricht Read more

World losing 2,000 hectares of farm soil daily to salt damage

Salt-spoiled soils worldwide: 20 percent of all irrigated lands -- an area equal to France; Extensive costs include $27 billion+ in lost crop value per year

Every day for more than 20 years, an average of 2,000 hectares of irrigated land in arid and semi-arid areas across 75 countries have been degraded by salt,...

28.10.2014 | nachricht Read more

Variation in antibiotic bacteria in tropical forest soils may play a role in diversity

Antibiotic-producing bacteria in soil are the source of many antibiotics used to combat diseases in humans and plants. But, surprisingly little is known about how these microbes impact tropical plant communities and ecosystems, where plant diversity, competition, and pathogen pressures are high.

A study published October 28 in the journal Biotropica represents a step toward a better understanding of the role antibiotic-bacteria play in the ecology of...

28.10.2014 | nachricht Read more
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Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Permafrost soil is possible source of abrupt rise in greenhouse gases at end of last ice age

Scientists from the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) have identified a possible source of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases that were abruptly released to the atmosphere in large quantities around 14,600 years ago.

According to this new interpretation, the CO2 – released during the onset of the Bølling/Allerød warm period – presumably had their origin in thawing Arctic...

Im Focus: Small volcanic eruptions could be slowing global warming

Small volcanic eruptions might eject more of an atmosphere-cooling gas into Earth’s upper atmosphere than previously thought, potentially contributing to the recent slowdown in global warming, according to a new study.

Scientists have long known that volcanoes can cool the atmosphere, mainly by means of sulfur dioxide gas that eruptions expel. Droplets of sulfuric acid that...

Im Focus: Researchers discern the shapes of high-order Brownian motions

For the first time, scientists have vividly mapped the shapes and textures of high-order modes of Brownian motions--in this case, the collective macroscopic movement of molecules in microdisk resonators--researchers at Case Western Reserve University report.

The new technology holds promise for multimodal sensing and signal processing, and to develop optical coding for computing and other information-processing...

Im Focus: New form of crystalline order holds promise for thermoelectric applications

Since the 1850's scientists have known that crystalline materials are organized into fourteen different basic lattice structures. However, a team of researchers from Vanderbilt University and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) now reports that it has discovered an entirely new form of crystalline order that simultaneously exhibits both crystal and polycrystalline properties, which they describe as "interlaced crystals."

Writing in the Nov. 14 issue of the journal Nature Communications, the researchers describe finding this unusual arrangement of atoms while studying...

Im Focus: A Piece of the Quantum Puzzle

UCSB physicists demonstrate the high level of controllability needed to explore ideas in quantum simulations

While the Martinis Lab at UC Santa Barbara has been focusing on quantum computation, former postdoctoral fellow Pedram Roushan and several colleagues have been...

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