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Agriculture and forestry

Farming and plant protection are segments of agriculture and forestry an independent area.

Farming - a segment of agriculture

Agriculture involves all issues related to the production of food for humans and animals. Farming is the segment of agriculture that cultivates and farms fields to produce renewable raw materials. In addition to the targeted cultivation of crops, farming also involves maintenance and plant protection. Farming requires taking into account a wide variety of factors, such as managing fields with some degree of crop rotation. That means no field is cultivated with the same crop two years in a row. As a result, a variety of minerals are used, giving the soil time to regenerate. Plant protection is necessary in the farming industry in order to keep crops from withering and to protect them from pests and vermin. Shortly after the harvest, the soil is prepared for the next season. Farming, including plant protection, is often mentioned in the same breath as forestry, although this is inaccurate since forestry is an independent field.

Plant protection as an important element of farming

The term "plant protection" was used within the farming industry as early as 1890. Plant protection is described as all measures aimed at preventing the damage and diminishment of agricultural crop output. The German requirements relating to plant protection for the farming industry are outlined in the plant protection law . Plant protection may be carried out only by those with the proper training and those who adhere to the basic principles of integrated plant protection and protection of the ground water. Plant protection is one of the core elements of farming because it ensures a high-quality yield and healthy human nutrition. A special form of plant protection entails measures to combat birds that cause crop damage. Species that pose a threat to farming include blackbirds and starlings. This type of plant protection utilizes optical or acoustic measures to drive the birds off. The farming industry receives assistance with plant protection issues through special information sources and also via financial help. Without plant protection, the farming industry would be less productive.

Demarcation line between forestry and farming

Both forestry and farming involve the cultivation of renewable raw materials. The difference is that forestry is not focused on the financial aspect. Instead, the primary aim is the preservation and protection of the forests. Trees are thinned out when they are too close to other trees, when they die or if room for new plants must be made. Although forestry certainly has one eye on profits, the well-being of the forest is always the main objective. The importance of forestry and wood products is universally underestimated. Thanks to the forestry industry, we enjoy wood furniture, books and firewood. Forestry is a vital part of our lives, even if we don't actively participate. Forestry involves methodical work to keep forests alive. In Germany, there are three different forms of ownership: government, community and private. Despite the different forms, they all have to be managed with the principles of forestry in mind. Each German Bundesland (state) has enacted a state forestry law. The chief foresters are responsible for monitoring the implementation of the law. With the most forest acreage in Germany, Bavaria boasts the country's largest forestry operations.


The farming and plant protection industries contribute to a high quality of life and low product prices by maintaining the highest possible crop yield per field. While forestry places a high value on sustainability like farming and plant protection, the primary aim is still ensuring the health of the forests.

Agricultural and Forestry Science

This special field deals with the primary production of human and animal foodstuffs as well as renewable raw materials. Also addressed are issues related to habitats for flora and fauna, recreation or landscape and common use.

Among other subjects, reports are available on topics such as crop and plant management, ecological farming, horticulture, viticulture, forest management and agriculture.

Latest News:

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Harnessing a peptide holds promise for increasing crop yields without more fertilizer

UMass Amherst researchers identify a key molecule in nitrogen-fixing bacteria

Molecular biologists at the University of Massachusetts Amherst who study nitrogen-fixing bacteria in plants have discovered a "double agent" peptide in an...

25.11.2015 | nachricht Read more

Study shows how crop prices and climate variables affect yield and acreage

  • When corn prices increase, corn yield also increases. The response is one-third from better management practices and intensive use of land and two-thirds from additional planted acreage.
  • Changes in climate can lead to 7 to 12 percent reduction in corn yields under slow-warming scenarios to as much as 40 percent reduction under the rapid-warming scenarios.
  • This study demonstrates the responsiveness of corn yield to prices and can help guide economic models that estimate the carbon intensity and land-use effect of corn ethanol for compliance with the Low Carbon Fuel Standard in California.

When corn prices increase farmers reap higher yields by making changes. According to a recent University of Illinois study, about one-third of the yield...

18.11.2015 | nachricht Read more

Tomatoes get boost in growth, antioxidants from nano-sized nutrients

With the world population expected to reach 9 billion by 2050, engineers and scientists are looking for ways to meet the increasing demand for food without also increasing the strain on natural resources, such as water and energy -- an initiative known as the food-water-energy nexus.

Ramesh Raliya, PhD, a postdoctoral researcher, and Pratim Biswas, PhD, the Lucy & Stanley Lopata Professor and chair of the Department of Energy, Environmental...

09.11.2015 | nachricht Read more

Maternal influences – The contribution of mare genetics to gestation length and foal sex

In horse breeding, stallions are usually used to establish a breeding line. In some cases, however, the maternal lineage plays a more important role. Researchers from the Vetmeduni Vienna looked at the gestation length of different mare families and discovered that the length of gestation varies significantly from lineage to lineage. Certain families also produce more female offspring than male foals. The results were published in the journal PLOS One.

Owners of sport and leisure horses are keen on knowing the parentage of their animals. A horse with a good pedigree will often have the desired characteristics...

16.10.2015 | nachricht Read more

Covering the bases with cover crops

Optimizing nitrogen, mulch with perfect proportions... and poultry litter

Most of us think that farmers grow and harvest crops for food. That's true for many crops: they either feed humans or farm animals. However, there's another...

01.10.2015 | nachricht Read more

Innovative seeding machine to speed up kenaf planting

Kenaf seeds as well as other seedlings such as corn can now be planted in an economical, easier and organized way and faster with the use of pneumatic seeding machine, developed by researchers in Malaysia.

Kenaf seeds as well as other seedlings such as corn can now be planted in an economical, easier and organized way and faster with the use of pneumatic seeding...

23.09.2015 | nachricht Read more

Sweeping Study of U.S. Farm Data Shows Loss of Crop Diversity the Past 34 Years

Researchers say diverse agroecosystems are more resilient to variable weather from climate change.

U.S. farmers are growing fewer types of crops than they were 34 years ago, which could have implications for how farms fare as changes to the climate evolve,...

18.09.2015 | nachricht Read more

Success Combating Multi-resistant Bacteria in Stables

Multi-resistant bacteria represent a major problem not only in hospitals but also in animal husbandry. A study of the University Bonn describes how a farmer successfully eliminated these pathogens entirely from his pig stable. However, the radical hygiene measures taken in this case can only be applied in individual cases. Nevertheless, the work has yielded a number of recommendations – not only for farms but also for hospitals. The study appeared in the Journal of Applied and Environmental Microbiology.

Today some farms are implementing measures more frequently found in an operating theater: To enter the stable, employees have to change clothes. Before and...

07.09.2015 | nachricht Read more

Fingerprinting erosion

Solving the mystery of erosion in the south Tobacco Creek watershed

You may have noticed that after a heavy rainstorm, creeks and rivers often turn the color of chocolate milk. That cloudy brown color is caused by...

03.09.2015 | nachricht Read more

Increasingly severe disturbances weaken world's temperate forests

Longer, more severe, and hotter droughts and a myriad of other threats, including diseases and more extensive and severe wildfires, are threatening to transform some of the world's temperate forests, a new study published in Science has found. Without informed management, some forests could convert to shrublands or grasslands within the coming decades.

"While we have been trying to manage for resilience of 20th century conditions, we realize now that we must prepare for transformations and attempt to ease...

31.08.2015 | nachricht Read more
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Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Climate study finds evidence of global shift in the 1980s

Planet Earth experienced a global climate shift in the late 1980s on an unprecedented scale, fuelled by anthropogenic warming and a volcanic eruption, according to new research published this week.

Scientists say that a major step change, or ‘regime shift’, in the Earth’s biophysical systems, from the upper atmosphere to the depths of the ocean and from...

Im Focus: Innovative Photovoltaics – from the Lab to the Façade

Fraunhofer ISE Demonstrates New Cell and Module Technologies on its Outer Building Façade

The Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE has installed 70 photovoltaic modules on the outer façade of one of its lab buildings. The modules were...

Im Focus: Lactate for Brain Energy

Nerve cells cover their high energy demand with glucose and lactate. Scientists of the University of Zurich now provide new support for this. They show for the first time in the intact mouse brain evidence for an exchange of lactate between different brain cells. With this study they were able to confirm a 20-year old hypothesis.

In comparison to other organs, the human brain has the highest energy requirements. The supply of energy for nerve cells and the particular role of lactic acid...

Im Focus: Laser process simulation available as app for first time

In laser material processing, the simulation of processes has made great strides over the past few years. Today, the software can predict relatively well what will happen on the workpiece. Unfortunately, it is also highly complex and requires a lot of computing time. Thanks to clever simplification, experts from Fraunhofer ILT are now able to offer the first-ever simulation software that calculates processes in real time and also runs on tablet computers and smartphones. The fast software enables users to do without expensive experiments and to find optimum process parameters even more effectively.

Before now, the reliable simulation of laser processes was a job for experts. Armed with sophisticated software packages and after many hours on computer...

Im Focus: Quantum Simulation: A Better Understanding of Magnetism

Heidelberg physicists use ultracold atoms to imitate the behaviour of electrons in a solid

Researchers at Heidelberg University have devised a new way to study the phenomenon of magnetism. Using ultracold atoms at near absolute zero, they prepared a...

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