Farming and plant protection are segments of agriculture and forestry an independent area.
Agriculture involves all issues related to the production of food for humans and animals. Farming is the segment of agriculture that cultivates and farms fields to produce renewable raw materials. In addition to the targeted cultivation of crops, farming also involves maintenance and plant protection. Farming requires taking into account a wide variety of factors, such as managing fields with some degree of crop rotation. That means no field is cultivated with the same crop two years in a row. As a result, a variety of minerals are used, giving the soil time to regenerate. Plant protection is necessary in the farming industry in order to keep crops from withering and to protect them from pests and vermin. Shortly after the harvest, the soil is prepared for the next season. Farming, including plant protection, is often mentioned in the same breath as forestry, although this is inaccurate since forestry is an independent field.
The term "plant protection" was used within the farming industry as early as 1890. Plant protection is described as all measures aimed at preventing the damage and diminishment of agricultural crop output. The German requirements relating to plant protection for the farming industry are outlined in the plant protection law . Plant protection may be carried out only by those with the proper training and those who adhere to the basic principles of integrated plant protection and protection of the ground water. Plant protection is one of the core elements of farming because it ensures a high-quality yield and healthy human nutrition. A special form of plant protection entails measures to combat birds that cause crop damage. Species that pose a threat to farming include blackbirds and starlings. This type of plant protection utilizes optical or acoustic measures to drive the birds off. The farming industry receives assistance with plant protection issues through special information sources and also via financial help. Without plant protection, the farming industry would be less productive.Demarcation line between forestry and farming
Both forestry and farming involve the cultivation of renewable raw materials. The difference is that forestry is not focused on the financial aspect. Instead, the primary aim is the preservation and protection of the forests. Trees are thinned out when they are too close to other trees, when they die or if room for new plants must be made. Although forestry certainly has one eye on profits, the well-being of the forest is always the main objective. The importance of forestry and wood products is universally underestimated. Thanks to the forestry industry, we enjoy wood furniture, books and firewood. Forestry is a vital part of our lives, even if we don't actively participate. Forestry involves methodical work to keep forests alive. In Germany, there are three different forms of ownership: government, community and private. Despite the different forms, they all have to be managed with the principles of forestry in mind. Each German Bundesland (state) has enacted a state forestry law. The chief foresters are responsible for monitoring the implementation of the law. With the most forest acreage in Germany, Bavaria boasts the country's largest forestry operations.
The farming and plant protection industries contribute to a high quality of life and low product prices by maintaining the highest possible crop yield per field. While forestry places a high value on sustainability like farming and plant protection, the primary aim is still ensuring the health of the forests.
This special field deals with the primary production of human and animal foodstuffs as well as renewable raw materials. Also addressed are issues related to habitats for flora and fauna, recreation or landscape and common use.
Among other subjects, reports are available on topics such as crop and plant management, ecological farming, horticulture, viticulture, forest management and agriculture.
IAMO Policy Brief 19 presents latest findings on flexibility of Polish agrarian enterprises
Farming operations facing substantial pressures to adapt in response to changed economic and socio-political framework conditions in recent years. Increasing...17.10.2014 | Read more
Diverse plant communities are more successful and enable higher crop yields than pure monocultures, a European research team headed by ecologists from the University of Zurich has discovered. The scientists are convinced that the cultivation of crop mixtures in agriculture and forestry will play a key role in food safety in the future.
Although monocultures can be cultivated efficiently, they are anything but sustainable: environmental damage to soil and water caused by monoculture...16.10.2014 | Read more
Results can help breeders improve health-related traits in cultivated tomatoes
Tomatoes are known to be rich in antioxidants such as vitamin C, lycopene, β-carotene, and phenolics. Antioxidants, substances capable of delaying or...10.10.2014 | Read more
Plant scientists are working to improve important food crops such as rice, maize, and beans to meet the food needs of a growing world population. However, boosting crop output will require improving more than what can be seen of these plants above the ground. Root systems are essential to gathering water and nutrients, but understanding what's happening in these unseen parts of the plants has until now depended mostly on lab studies and subjective field measurements.
To address that need, researchers from the Georgia Institute of Technology and Penn State University have developed an automated imaging technique for...09.10.2014 | Read more
Research to be presented at the APS comparative physiology meeting in San Diego
As global populations rise, so does the demand for seafood. In developed nations, the health benefits of a diet high in fish and seafood are regularly touted....07.10.2014 | Read more
Two papers in the Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science investigates the effects of low water input, and high salt levels, on rice growth.
Rice is a staple food across Asia, with both people and economies reliant on its successful harvest. One paper finds that low water input does not affect rice...06.10.2014 | Read more
Warm temperatures and a wet landscape increase soil’s ability to store carbon, which in turn helps mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, according to a new University of Florida study covering 45 years of data.
Soil-stored carbon can slow the build-up of carbon-based gases in the atmosphere, a phenomenon believed to be a cause of global climate change. So it’s vital...30.09.2014 | Read more
A new app designed at IIASA makes agricultural data available for gardeners and smallholder farmers around the world, and allows users to share information and inform future research.
Knowing what to plant and when is vital information both for farmers and for gardeners who want to grow their own fruits and vegetables. The Growers Nation...29.09.2014 | Read more
University of Adelaide researchers are introducing a method to use bees to deliver disease control to cherry blossom, preventing brown rot in cherries.
University of Adelaide researchers are introducing a method to use bees to deliver disease control to cherry blossom, preventing brown rot in cherries.24.09.2014 | Read more
The Earth’s soils store four times more carbon than the atmosphere and small changes in soil carbon storage can have a big effect on atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. A new paper in the journal Nature Climate Change concludes that climate warming does not accelerate soil organic carbon decomposition or affect soil carbon storage, despite increases in ecosystem productivity.
The research, led by U.S. Forest Service Research Ecologist Dr. Christian Giardina, with the agency’s Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, Pacific Southwest...24.09.2014 | Read more
The claim by UMass Amherst researchers that the microbe Geobacter produces tiny electrical wires has been mired in controversy for a decade, but a new collaborative study provides stronger evidence than ever to support their claims.
The claim by microbiologist Derek Lovley and colleagues at the University of Massachusetts Amherst that the microbe Geobacter produces tiny electrical wires,...
Siemens has developed a solution for integrating an electric car's motor and inverter in a single housing. Until now, the motor and the inverter, which converts the battery's direct current into alternating current for the motor, were two separate components.
The new integrated drive unit saves space, reduces weight, and cuts costs. The solution's key feature is the use of a common cooling system for both...
NASA is carrying out its sixth consecutive year of Operation IceBridge research flights over Antarctica to study changes in the continent’s ice sheet, glaciers and sea ice. This year’s airborne campaign, which began its first flight Thursday morning, will revisit a section of the Antarctic ice sheet that recently was found to be in irreversible decline.
For the next several weeks, researchers will fly aboard NASA’s DC-8 research aircraft out of Punta Arenas, Chile. This year also marks the return to western...
Astronomers using the National Science Foundation’s Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia, along with data from other large radio telescopes, have discovered that our nearest galactic neighbors, the dwarf spheroidal galaxies, are devoid of star-forming gas, and that our Milky Way Galaxy is to blame.
These new radio observations, which are the highest sensitivity of their kind ever undertaken, reveal that within a well-defined boundary around our Galaxy,...
In their search for the earliest possible stage of development of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) that still have the potential to develop into any types of body cells and tissue, researchers from the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine (MDC) Berlin-Buch, Germany, and the University of Bath, United Kingdom, have apparently been successful. Jichang Wang, Gangcai Xie, and Dr. Zsuzsanna Izsvák (MDC), together with Professor Laurence D. Hurst (University of Bath), report the discovery of a subtype of cells in culture dishes with hESCs and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) that resemble this very early, pluripotent or naïve state (Nature, doi:10.1038/nature13804)*.
They also discovered the mechanism that turns human ES cells into naïve-like human stem cells. While this has potential implications for medicine and for...
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20.10.2014 | Physics and Astronomy
20.10.2014 | Life Sciences
20.10.2014 | Life Sciences