The post Super-precise spectrometer enabled by latent information carried by photons appeared first on Innovations Report.

]]>**Colors bring information**

The task of spectroscopy is to study the various colors, that is the spectrum, of light. A chemical substance will emit its characteristic colors by which it can be identified. Similarly, a distant star will also have a specific spectrum of light, through which we can understand its astrophysical properties such as size or age. Different colors of light are also used to transmit information over channels in fiber networks, similarly as different radio bands are used to transmit many channels at the same time. These optical channels are at the core of intercontinental optical networks, and are also essential for future secure quantum networks. In all those cases, a difficult task is to distinguish close-by channels or spectroscopic lines. It has been thought that if channels overlap, they are almost impossible to distinguish – a property studied by John William Strutt, Lord Rayleigh, later termed Rayleigh criterion.

**Quantum to the rescue**

Progress in quantum information science has allowed us to understand that the traditional so-called direct imaging or spectroscopy discards part of the information that is carried in the phase of the complex electromagnetic field of light. The quantum-inspired super-resolution techniques transform the complex electromagnetic field before it is detected to optimally use this latent information. The working principle of the device – Super-resolution of Ultrafast pulses via Spectral Inversion (SUSI) – is very similar to the so-called quantum-inspired super-resolution methods in imaging. The greatest challenge was how to translate these ideas to the realm of time and frequency.

**Just do a flip**

In super-resolved quantum imaging, the light coming from the object is split into two arms of an interferometer. One arm contains a device which inverts (flips) the image. Then the inverted part interferes with the original one. Now, for instance if there is only one tiny emitter perfectly aligned with the inversion axis, its inverted image will be identical to the original one. In this case we would see no photons in one of the interferometer ports. However, as soon as the emitter would be moved, its inverted image will become different from the original and photons will appear in that port. Their number is a very good indicator of how much the emitter was moved. Taking this example a step further, we may imagine two emitters which are separated symmetrically around the inversion axis. Each emitter will contribute to the counted photons in the same way, hence we have measured the separation between two emitters. As with every measurement it has a limited precision, but it turns out that this precision can be significantly better compared to just directly imaging the emitters with a camera.

**Manipulating the time and color**

In the realm of time and frequency these ideas still hold. Instead of thinking about tiny emitters let us focus on pulses of light. The pulses appear at the same time but each has a slightly different color, because they come from different optical channels or different spectroscopic lines. In a standard approach instead of directly looking with a camera, one would first use a dispersive device such as a diffraction grating or a prism which would send different frequencies to different positions on the camera sensor. With two closely separated pulses, these frequency distributions will mostly overlap, limiting the precision with which the separation can be measured. With SUSI we can improve this precision.

But how can we implement inversion over the frequencies? Solving this problem was a crucial step in designing SUSI. A fundamental observation was that instead of placing an inverter in a single interferometer arm, we can get the same result with a Fourier Transform in one arm and an inverse Fourier Transform in the second arm. Such design creates a very balanced and scalable device, which was then built by the PhD student Michał Lipka under supervision of Dr Michał Parniak, team leader at the Quantum Optical Devices Lab and assistant professor at the Optics Division, Faculty of Physics UW. Both arms of the interferometer have comparable losses, and the devices for the inverse and direct Fourier transform are very similar. Furthermore, all elements used in the SUSI interferometer can be already implemented on a photonic chip making SUSI very applicable and integrable in super-spectrometers or devices for optical networks, thus providing at least a two-fold improvement in the resolution compared to current devices. The research, which has been funded by the National Science Centre via a PRELUDIUM grant, thus promises exciting applications.

**Faculty of Physics of the University of Warsaw**

Physics and astronomy at the University of Warsaw appeared in 1816 as part of the then Faculty of Philosophy. In 1825, the Astronomical Observatory was established. Currently, the Faculty of Physics at the University of Warsaw consists of the following institutes: Experimental Physics, Theoretical Physics, Geophysics, the Department of Mathematical Methods in Physics, and the Astronomical Observatory. The research covers almost all areas of modern physics on scales from quantum to cosmological. The Faculty’s research and teaching staff consists of over 250 academic teachers. About 1,100 students and over 170 doctoral students study at the Faculty of Physics UW. The University of Warsaw is among the 150 best universities in the world, educating in the field of physics according to Shanghai’s Global Ranking of Academic Subjects.

__SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATION:__

M. Lipka, M. Parniak, Super-resolution of ultrafast pulses via spectral inversion, *Optica* 11, 1226-1234 (2024) DOI: 10.1364/OPTICA.522555

__https://opg.optica.org/optica/fulltext.cfm?uri=optica-11-9-1226&id=557206__

__CONTACT:__

Dr hab. Michał Parniak

mparniak@fuw.edu.pl

+48 22 55 43 786

Michał Lipka

mj.lipka@uw.edu.pl

+48 22 55 32 629

__RELATED WEBSITES WWW:__

__https://www.fuw.edu.pl/faculty-of-physics-home.html__

Website of the Faculty of Physics University of Warsaw

__https://www.qodl.eu__

Quantum Optical Devices Lab:

__https://qot.cent.uw.edu.pl__

QOT Centre for Quantum Optical Technologies:

__http://optics.fuw.edu.pl__

Optics Division Faculty of Physics UW :

__https://www.fuw.edu.pl/press-releases.html__

Press service of the Faculty of Physics at the University of Warsaw

__GRAPHIC MATERIALS:__

**FUW240912b_01.jpg**

https://www.fuw.edu.pl/tl_files/press/images/2024/FUW240912b_01.jpg Frequency lens using multiple diffraction on a diffraction grating. The light pulse is transformed in a frequency analogous to the light beam passing through the real lens (fot. M. Lipka, University of Warsaw)

**FUW240912b_02.jpg **

https://www.fuw.edu.pl/tl_files/press/images/2024/FUW240912b_02.jpg

Electro-optical time lens. A light pulse synchronized with an electronic control signal undergoes a transformation in time analogous to a light beam passing through a real lens. (fot. M. Lipka, University of Warsaw)

*Journal: Optica*

*DOI: 10.1364/OPTICA.522555 *

*Article Title: Super-resolution of ultrafast pulses via spectral inversion*

*Article Publication Date: 28-Aug-2024*

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]]>The post Energy transmission in quantum field theory requires information appeared first on Innovations Report.

]]>The interface between different quantum field theories is an important concept that arises in a variety of problems in particle physics and condensed matter physics. However, it has been difficult to calculate the transmission rates of energy and information across interfaces.

Hirosi Ooguri, Professor at the Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU, WPI) at the University of Tokyo and Fred Kavli Professor at the California Institute of Technology, together with his collaborators, Associate Professor Yuya Kusuki at Kyushu University, and Professor Andreas Karch and graduate students Hao-Yu Sun and Mianqi Wang at the University of Texas, Austin, showed that for theories in two dimensions with scale invariance there are simple and universal inequalities between three quantities: Energy transfer rate, Information transfer rate, and the size of Hilbert space (measured by the rate of increase of the number of states at high energy). Namely,

[ energy transmittance ] ≤ [ information transmittance] ≤ [ size of the Hilbert space ].

These inequalities imply that, in order to transmit energy, information must also be transmitted, and both require a sufficient number of states. They also showed that no stronger inequality is possible.

Both energy and information transmissions are important quantities, but they are difficult to calculate, and no relationship between them was known. By showing the inequality between these quantities, this paper sheds new light on this important but difficult problem.

*Journal: Physical Review Letters*

*DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.133.091604 *

*Article Title: Universal bound on effective central charge and its saturation*

**Media Contact**

Motoko Kakubayashi

Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe

motoko.kakubayashi@ipmu.jp

Office: 0081-471-365-980

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]]>The post A Dictionary of Abstract Math appeared first on Innovations Report.

]]>* Several fields of mathematics have developed in total isolation, using their own ‘undecipherable’ coded languages. In a new study published in PNAS, Tamás Hausel, professor of mathematics at the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (ISTA), presents “big algebras,” a two-way mathematical ‘dictionary’ between symmetry, algebra, and geometry, that could strengthen the connection between the distant worlds of quantum physics and number theory. *

Big algebra surface and skeleton. The trident is the skeleton of the triplet big algebra’s surface, drawn with algebraic geometry techniques. © Bedats/Hausel

**Technical Toolkit: Symmetry and commutativity, from esthetics to functionality**

Symmetry is not just a question of esthetics and equilibrium, but also a highly recurrent feature throughout the domains of life. Mathematically, symmetry is a form of ‘invariance’: Even when subjected to certain operations or transformations, a symmetrical mathematical object remains unchanged.

– The group of all transformations under which a mathematical object remains invariant is called a ‘symmetry group.’

– Symmetries such as the rotation of a circle or a sphere can be classified as ‘continuous.’ (Contrary to this, an example of a ‘discrete’ symmetry is the mirroring of a bilaterally symmetrical object like a butterfly’s wings.)

– Continuous symmetry groups are mathematically represented by matrices—rectangular arrays of numbers—which can convert the properties of the mathematical object into linear algebra.

Continuous symmetry groups are called ‘commutative’ when the order of the operations or transformations does not matter, or ‘non-commutative’ in the opposite case.

– Rotations of a circle can be seen as a commutative continuous symmetry group. In contrast, the symmetry group of the planet Earth is non-commutative: if one starts by looking at the equator going through Africa, rotating left then down does not produce the same result as rotating down then left. In the first case, one’s view would be centered on the South Pole. In the second, one would arrive at the equator in the western hemisphere with the poles positioned horizontally.

– Non-commutative symmetry groups have been so far represented by non-commutative matrices, i.e., matrices in which the order of operations influences the end result. However, this does not allow a geometric interpretation as the geometry of non-commutative algebras is not yet well understood. On the other hand, commutative algebras can be well understood through their geometry.

– A “big algebra” is a commutative ‘translation’ of a non-commutative matrix algebra, and thus allows the use of algebraic geometry techniques. As a result, big algebras shed new light on the properties of non-commutative continuous symmetry groups.

Mathematics, the most exact among scientific disciplines, could be viewed as the ultimate quest for absolute truth. However, the mathematical roads to truth often need to overcome tremendous obstacles, much like conquering unimaginably high mountain peaks or building giant bridges between isolated continents. The mathematical world abounds with mysteries and several mathematical disciplines have developed along convoluted paths—in complete isolation from one another. Thus, establishing an irrefutable truth around complex phenomena in the physical world draws on intuition and a good deal of abstraction. Even fundamental aspects of physics push mathematics to new heights of complexity. This is especially true for symmetries, with the help of which physicists have theorized and discovered an entire zoo of subatomic particles that make up our universe.

In an exceptionally ambitious endeavor, Tamás Hausel, professor at the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (ISTA), not only conjectured but also proved a new mathematical tool called “big algebras.” This new theorem is comparable to a ‘dictionary’ that deciphers the most abstract aspects of mathematical symmetry using algebraic geometry. By operating at the intersection of symmetry, abstract algebra, and geometry, big algebras use more tangible geometric information to recapitulate sophisticated mathematical information about symmetries. “With big algebras, information from the ‘tip of the mathematical iceberg’ can give us unprecedented insights into the hidden depths of the mysterious world of symmetry groups,” says Hausel. With this mathematical breakthrough, Hausel seeks to consolidate the connection between two distant fields of mathematics: “Imagine, on the one hand, a world of mathematical representations of quantum physics, and on the other hand, very, very far away, the purely mathematical world of number theory. With the present work, I hope to have come one step closer to establishing a stable connection between these two worlds.”

**No longer lost in translation**

The 17th-century philosopher and mathematician René Descartes showed us that we could understand the geometry of objects by using algebraic equations. Thus, he was the first to ‘translate’ mathematical information between these previously separate fields. “I like to view the relations between different mathematical fields as dictionaries that translate information between often non-mutually intelligible mathematical languages,” says Hausel. So far, several such mathematical ‘dictionaries’ have been developed, but some only translate the information in one direction, leaving the information about the way back entirely encrypted. Furthermore, the term “algebra” nowadays encompasses both classical algebra, as in Descartes’ time, and abstract algebra, i.e. the study of mathematical structures that cannot necessarily be expressed with numerical values. This adds another layer of complexity. Now, Hausel uses abstract algebra and algebraic geometry as a two-way ‘dictionary’.

**A skeleton and nerves**

In mathematics, symmetry is defined as a form of ‘invariance’. The group of transformations that keep a mathematical object unchanged is called a “symmetry group”. These are classified as ‘continuous’ (e.g., the rotation of a circle or sphere) or ‘discrete’ (e.g., the mirroring of an object). Continuous symmetry groups are represented mathematically by matrices—rectangular arrays of numbers. Starting from a matrix representation of a continuous symmetry group, Hausel can compute the big algebra and represent its essential properties geometrically by drawing its ‘skeleton’ and ‘nerves’ on a mathematical surface. The big algebra’s skeleton and nerves give rise to interesting, 3D-printable shapes that recapitulate sophisticated aspects of the original mathematical information, thus closing the translation circle. “I am particularly excited about this work, as it provides us with a completely novel approach to studying representations of continuous symmetry groups. With big algebras, the mathematical ‘translation’ does not only work in one direction but in both.”

**Bridging isolated continents in a vast world of mathematics**

How could big algebras strengthen the link between quantum physics and number theory, two fields of mathematics seemingly worlds apart? Firstly, the math behind quantum physics makes extensive use of matrices—rectangular arrays of numbers. However, these matrices are typically ‘non-commutative,’ meaning that multiplying the first matrix by the second does not yield the same result as multiplying the second one by the first. This poses a problem in algebra and algebraic geometry as non-commutative algebra is not yet well understood. Big algebras now solve this problem: when computed, a big algebra is a commutative ‘mathematical translation’ of a non-commutative matrix algebra. Thus, the information initially enclosed within non-commutative matrices can be decoded and represented geometrically to reveal their hidden properties.

Secondly, Hausel shows that big algebras not only reveal relationships between related symmetry groups, but also when their so-called “Langlands duals” are related. These duals are a central concept in the purely mathematical world of number theory. In the Langlands Program, a highly intricate, large-scale dictionary that seeks to bridge isolated mathematical ‘continents,’ the Langlands duality is a concept or tool that allows ‘mapping’ mathematical information between different categories. “In my work, big algebras seem to relate different symmetry groups precisely when their Langlands duals are related, a quite surprising outcome with possible applications in number theory,” says Hausel.

“Ideally, big algebras would allow me to relate the Langlands duality in number theory with quantum physics,” says Hausel. For now, he was able to demonstrate that big algebras solve problems on both of these continents. The fog has started to dissipate, and the continents of quantum physics and number theory have caught a glimpse of each others’ mountains and shores on the horizon. Soon, rather than only connecting the continents by boat, a bridge of big algebras might allow an easier crossing of the mathematical strait separating them.

**Funding information**

This project was supported by funding from the Austrian Science Fund (FWF), grant “Geometry of the tip of the global nilpotent cone” no. P 35847.

Hausel T. 2024. Commutative avatars of representations of semisimple Lie groups. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA (PNAS). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2319341121

https://ista.ac.at/en/research/hausel-group/ Hausel Research Group

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]]>The post Huge gamma-ray burst collection ‘rivals 250-year-old Messier catalogue’ appeared first on Innovations Report.

]]>GRBs are the most violent explosions in the Universe, releasing more energy than the Sun would in 10 billion years. They occur when either a massive star dies or two neutron stars merge.

The explosions are so formidable that if one were to erupt within a distance of 1,000 light-years from Earth – which is predicted to happen every 500 million years – the blast of radiation could damage our ozone layer and have devastating consequences for life. However, the chances of such an event occurring any time soon are extremely low.

First observed almost six decades ago, GRBs also have the potential to help us better understand the history of our Universe, from its earliest stars to how it looks today.

The latest research recorded 535 GRBs – the nearest of which was 77 million light-years from Earth – from 455 telescopes and instruments across the world.

It was led by Professor Maria Giovanna Dainotti, of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, and has been published today in the *Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society*.

The researchers likened their collection to the 110 deep-sky objects catalogued by the French astronomer Charles Messier in the 18th century. To this day the catalogue continues to provide astronomers – both professional and amateur – with a range of easy-to-find objects in the night sky.

“Our research enhances our understanding of these enigmatic cosmic explosions and showcases the collaborative effort across nations,” said Professor Dainotti.

“The result is a catalogue akin to the one created by Messier 250 years ago, which classified deep-sky objects observable at that time.”

It has been hailed by co-author Professor Alan Watson, of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, as a “great resource” that could help “push the frontiers of our knowledge forward”.

Professors Watson and Dainotti were part of a team of more than 50 scientists who meticulously studied how GRB light reaches Earth over several weeks and, in some cases, even months after the explosion. The result, they say, is the largest catalogue ever assembled of GRBs observed in optical wavelengths with measured distances.

It includes 64,813 photometric observations collected over 26 years, with notable contributions from the Swift satellites, the RATIR camera, and the Subaru Telescope.

What the team found particularly interesting about their findings was that nearly a third of the GRBs recorded (28 per cent) did not change or evolve as the light from the explosions travelled across the cosmos.

Co-author Dr Rosa Becerra, of the University of Tor Vergata in Rome, said this suggests that some of the most recent GRBs behave in exactly the same way as those which occurred billions of years ago.

Such a finding is at odds with the big picture commonly seen in the Universe, where objects have continuously evolved from the Big Bang.

Professor Dainotti added: “This phenomenon could indicate a very peculiar mechanism for how these explosions occur, suggesting that the stars linked to GRBs are more primitive than those born more recently.

“However, this hypothesis still needs more investigation.”

On the other hand, for the few GRBs where this optical evolution matches the X-ray evolution, a more straightforward explanation is possible.

“Specifically, we are observing an expanding plasma composed of electrons and positrons that cools over time, and like a hot iron rod radiating redder and redder light as it cools, we do see a transition of the emission mechanism,” said fellow researcher Professor Bruce Gendre, of the University of the Virgin Islands.

“In this case, this mechanism may be linked to the magnetic energy that powers these phenomena.”

The researchers now want the astronomical community to help expand their GRB compilation further. They have made the data accessible through a user-friendly web app and have called on their peers to add to it, ideally by sharing findings in the same format.

“Adopting a standardised format and units, potentially linked to the International Virtual Observatory Alliance protocols, will enhance the consistency and accessibility of the data in this field,” Professor Gendre said.

“Once the data are secured, additional population studies will be conducted, triggering new discoveries based on the statistical analysis of the current work.”

**Media contacts**

Sam Tonkin

Royal Astronomical Society

Mob: +44 (0)7802 877 700

press@ras.ac.uk

Dr Robert Massey

Royal Astronomical Society

Mob: +44 (0)7802 877 699

press@ras.ac.uk

**Science contacts**

Professor Maria Dainotti

mariagiovannadainotti@yahoo.it

Mob: +81 (0)80 3082 1978

**Images and captions**

Caption: Gamma-ray bursts (like the one depicted in this artist’s impression) are the most violent explosions in the Universe, releasing more energy than the Sun would in 10 billion years.

Credit: NASA/Swift/Cruz deWilde

Caption: This animation models a gamma-ray burst called GRB 080319B, detected by NASA’s Swift satellite in 2008. It shows jets of particles and gamma radiation being emitted in opposite directions as a massive star collapses, first a narrow beam (white) and then a wider one (purple).

Credit: NASA/Swift/Cruz deWilde

**Further information**

The new study ‘An optical gamma-ray burst catalogue with measured redshift PART I: Data release of 535 gamma-ray bursts and colour evolution’, Professor Maria Giovanna Dainotti et al., has been published in *Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society*.

It will be available here when the embargo lifts. To request a copy of the paper in advance, email press@ras.ac.uk.

**Notes for editors**

*About the Royal Astronomical Society*

The Royal Astronomical Society (RAS), founded in 1820, encourages and promotes the study of astronomy, solar-system science, geophysics and closely related branches of science.

The RAS organises scientific meetings, publishes international research and review journals, recognises outstanding achievements by the award of medals and prizes, maintains an extensive library, supports education through grants and outreach activities and represents UK astronomy nationally and internationally. Its more than 4,000 members (Fellows), a third based overseas, include scientific researchers in universities, observatories and laboratories as well as historians of astronomy and others.

The RAS accepts papers for its journals based on the principle of peer review, in which fellow experts on the editorial boards accept the paper as worth considering. The Society issues press releases based on a similar principle, but the organisations and scientists concerned have overall responsibility for their content.

Keep up with the RAS on X, Facebook, LinkedIn and YouTube.

*Journal: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society*

*DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stae1484 *

*Method of Research: Observational study*

*Subject of Research: Not applicable*

*Article Title: An optical gamma-ray burst catalogue with measured redshift PART I: Data release of 535 gamma-ray bursts and colour evolution*

*Article Publication Date: 13-Sep-2024*

**Media Contact**

Sam Tonkin

Royal Astronomical Society

stonkin@ras.ac.uk

Cell: 7802 877700

**Video:**

This animation models a gamma-ray burst called GRB 080319B, detected by NASA’s Swift satellite in 2008. It shows jets of particles and gamma radiation being emitted in opposite directions as a massive star collapses, first a narrow beam (white) and then a wider one (purple). Credit: NASA/Swift/Cruz deWilde

https://www.eurekalert.org/multimedia/1041773

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]]>The post Ultrafast steering of quantum-entangled electrons appeared first on Innovations Report.

]]>Optical control of dissociative photoionization of H2: left/right asymmetry of the photoelectron emission direction with respect to the outgoing neutral H atom as a function of the fragment kinetic energy (KER) and the IR/XUV delay. Graphics: Scientific Reports https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-024-67465-0/figures/3

Are we going left or right? A basic question with (usually) a simple answer on a hike in our classical world can be much more difficult to answer in the quantum world of elementary particles. Electrons and protons, the building blocks of molecules, can exist in states that go both left AND right at the same time, and make their decision to “materialize” in one of these choices only at the moment of their measurement (e. g. by impact on a particle detector). This phenomenon called quantum entanglement forms the basis of so-called quantum computers, in which information is stored and processed in quantum bits (Qubits) that allow for superpositions of simultaneously “right” AND “left”, or “0” AND “1” in computer lingo. This makes quantum computation on such machines way more powerful than on classical computers, as basically multiple computations that would take a long time to run sequentially now all run at the same time. But there are problems: The programming of quantum computers is complex and requires many steps that take time — time during which the quantum processing unit can turn unstable (by “decoherence”).

A team of physicists from MPIK Heidelberg — Farshad Shobeiry, Patrick Fross, Hemkumar Srinivas, Thomas Pfeifer, Robert Moshammer and Anne Harth (now Professor at Aalen University) — has now taken a significant step towards a dramatic (> 100.000 fold) speed-up of the control of entangled quantum states, from nanoseconds to femto- (10⁻¹⁵ s) or even attoseconds (10⁻¹⁸ s). The researchers studied the fundamental quantum dynamics of hydrogen molecules (two protons, two electrons) in their attosecond laser labs, picking up electron and protons after their interaction with these ultrashort flashes (pulses) of light. They found that the emission direction of electrons with respect to the protons can be modified by delaying attosecond pulses with respect to the maxima and minima of a laser light wave on a time-scale of less than a femtosecond. A general theory model explained this finding by the above-mentioned superposition of states: Two electrons of the molecule are quantum-mechanically entangled even though they are in different locations (one of them flying away isolated, the other still bound to a proton). The theory also showed that these states, which are similar to co-called Bell-states (a corner stone of quantum information theory), can be modified by attosecond delays between a high-frequency (extreme ultraviolet, XUV) and a low-frequency (infrared, IR) light flash.

While it is too early to design a viable quantum computer based on this idea, it provides the fundamental physics insights for programming quantum information on extremely short time scales. The generality of the model employed to explain the experiment conducted at MPIK Heidelberg allows, in principle, its translation from hydrogen to any other system in which two colors of light can be “mixed” to achieve quantum control of entangled states on the fundamental “ultrafast” time scale of electronic motion.

PD Dr. Robert Moshammer

MPI für Kernphysik

Phone: +49 6221 516-461

robert.moshammer@mpi-hd.mpg.de

Prof. Dr. Thomas Pfeifer

MPI für Kernphysik

Phone: +49 6221 516-380

thomas.pfeifer@mpi-hd.mpg.de

Prof. Dr. Anne Harth

Zentrum für Optische Technologien

Hochschule Aalen

Phone: +49 7361-576-4586

Anne.harth@hs-aalen.de

Emission control of entangled electrons in photoionization of a hydrogen molecule

Farshad Shobeiry, Patrick Fross, Hemkumar Srinivas, Thomas Pfeifer, Robert Moshammer and Anne Harth

Scientific Reports 14, 19630 (2024). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-024-67465-0

https://www.mpi-hd.mpg.de/mpi/en/research/scientific-divisions-and-groups/quantu… Group “Ionizing Atoms and Molecules in Strong Fields” (Division Pfeifer) at MPIK

https://www.hs-aalen.de/en/facilities/12 Center for Optical Technologies (Hochschule Aalen)

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]]>The post JunoCam spots new volcano on active Io appeared first on Innovations Report.

]]>The new volcano is located just south of Io’s equator. Although Io is covered with active volcanoes, images taken during NASA’s Galileo mission in 1997 did not see a volcano is in this particular region – just a featureless surface.

“Our recent JunoCam images show many changes on Io, including this large, complicated volcanic feature that appears to have formed from nothing since 1997,” said Michael Ravine, Advanced Projects Manager at Malin Space Science Systems, Inc, which designed, developed and operates JunoCam for the NASA Juno Project.

The eastern side of the volcano is stained a diffuse red from sulphur that has been vented by the volcano into space and fallen back onto Io’s surface. On the western side, two dark streams of lava have erupted, each running for about a hundred kilometres. At the farthest point of the flows, where the lava has pooled, the heat has caused the frozen material on the surface to vaporise, generating two overlapping grey circular deposits.

The best JunoCam image of this feature, east of an existing volcano called Kanehekili, was taken on 3 February 2024 from a distance of 2,530 kilometres and at a scale of 1.7 kilometres per pixel. The images were captured the nightside of Io with the illumination coming only from Jupiter.

This encounter was one of three recent flybys of Io in 2023 and 2024, during which JunoCam acquired around 20 close-up visible colour images. JunoCam observed a total of nine plumes associated with active volcanic features on the moon, as well as other changes, such as new lava flows and other surface deposits.

The JunoCam data are posted on the mission’s website (missionjuno.swri.edu) soon after being received on Earth to enable the public to create images of Jupiter and its moons.

“JunoCam images are created by people from all walks of life, providing a way for anyone to join our science team and share in the excitement of space exploration,” said Scott Bolton, the Principal Investigator of NASA’s Juno mission at Southwest Research Institute.

**Media Contact**

Anita Heward

Europlanet

aheward@europlanet-society.org

Office: 44-775-603-4243

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