Extremely energetic particles coupled with the violent death of a star for the first time
Gamma Ray Burst – what is that?
When a heavy star dies or collapses, it happens in the form of a supernova – a gigantic explosion. In about a ten thousandth of the supernovae it is even more violent. “Presumably a black hole or an extremely magnetic neutron star is formed”, Johan Fynbo from the Cosmic DAWN Center at the Niels Bohr Institute explains. The matter is compressed to form an enormously compact object, spinning extremely fast. The magnetic field along the rotational axis can become intense and emit energetic particles in the direction of the axis in what the researchers names as a “jet”. If it points in our direction, we see a gamma ray burst.
Extremely energetic particles in the gamma ray burst reach us on Earth.
The particles (electrons) emitted in the jet, strike light (photons) in their path and transfer the energy to the photons. The photons travel through the Universe, eventually to be detected and measured on Earth. Johan Fynbo and his colleagues, Daniele Malesani, Jonatan Selsing, Kasper Heintz and Luca Izzo observed the gamma ray burst only 29 minutes after its arrival on Earth and succeeded in measuring the distance to it. The distance is crucial in order to identify the source, which you have to know to understand the processes emitting a gamma ray burst this energetic into space. “It is extremely relativistic, which means that the jet emitted from the gamma ray burst travels with 99.999% of the speed of light, the fastest possible speed. And the basic understanding of the most extreme processes in space are at the center of the subsequent research. The discovery of a gamma ray burst also shows us that on this position in the Universe, the conditions for this extreme situation exist. In other words, we can use the gamma ray burst to learn more about these conditions as well”, Daniele Malesani explains.
The Sun is born – and an old star dies
The distance is important for a number of reasons: The intensity of any radiation, including the light from the gamma ray burst, fades with the distance it travels, so the energy-calculation of its source tells us it must have been a very energy packed event indeed. When we know the distance, we can calculate the time of the explosion as well: It took place 4.5 million years ago. When we look into space, we also look back in time. The supernova happened almost simultaneously with the forming of our own sun. Since then, the light from the gamma ray burst has travelled through space and reached Earth on 14th of January 2019. The gamma ray burst is in the constellation “Fornax”.
International collaboration – and an important upgrade of The Nordic Optical Telescope
The scientific article is the result of a collaboration between many researchers from all over the world, and the important distance measurement and positioning of the gamma ray burst were made by the team at the Niels Bohr Institute. This particular task it is expected to be solved with more ease at the Niels Bohr Institute in the future, thanks to a grant from the Carlsberg Foundation for a scientific instrument added to the Nordic Optical Telescope. “Within 5 years, we should become much better at following up on this type of transients or violent, short lived, astrophysical events with The Nordic Optical Telescope. Several research projects are under way, and they should enable us to discover many more of the energetic light particles from dying stars and other extreme objects, in order to be able to study this type of physics in much better detail”, Johan Fynbo explains.
Alle Nachrichten aus der Kategorie: Physics and Astronomy
This area deals with the fundamental laws and building blocks of nature and how they interact, the properties and the behavior of matter, and research into space and time and their structures.
innovations-report provides in-depth reports and articles on subjects such as astrophysics, laser technologies, nuclear, quantum, particle and solid-state physics, nanotechnologies, planetary research and findings (Mars, Venus) and developments related to the Hubble Telescope.
Humans drive most of the ups and downs in freshwater storage at Earth’s surface
Water levels in the world’s ponds, lakes and human-managed reservoirs rise and fall from season to season. But until now, it has been difficult to parse out exactly how much…
Source of hazardous high-energy particles located in the Sun
The source of potentially hazardous solar particles, released from the Sun at high speed during storms in its outer atmosphere, has been located for the first time by researchers at…
Most distant quasar with powerful radio jets discovered
With the help of the European Southern Observatory’s Very Large Telescope (ESO’s VLT), astronomers have discovered and studied in detail the most distant source of radio emission known to date….